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Table 2 Use of prescription and illicit drugs to enhance cognitive performance or mood without medical indication

From: Pharmacological neuroenhancement and the ability to recover from stress – a representative cross-sectional survey among the German population

Substance group / Single substancesa nb Lifetime %c (n) Last year %c (n) Last month %c (n) Last week %c (n)
Stimulating prescription drugs 1115 4.3 (48) 2.2 (25) 0.8 (9) 0.3 (4)
 Prescription drug containing amphetamines 1112 1.7 (19) 0.8 (9) 0.3 (4)
 Methylphenidate 1110 2.2 (25) 1.1 (12) 0.3 (3) 0.1 (1)
 Anti-dementia drug 1110 1.0 (11) 0.6 (6) 0.2 (2) 0.2 (2)
 Modafinil 1.107 0.4 (4) 0.1 (1) 0.1 (1) 0.1 (1)
Stimulating illicit drugs 1118 10.2 (114) 3.8 (42) 1.3 (14) 0.6 (6)
 Cocaine 1114 6.1 (68) 1.9 (21) 0.3 (4) 0.1 (1)
 Amphetamines 1115 6.9 (77) 2.5 (28) 0.8 (9) 0.3 (4)
 Meth-Amphetamines 1111 2.0 (22) 0.6 (6) 0.1 (1) 0.1 (1)
Mood modulating prescription drugs 1110 20.3 (225) 10.6 (118) 5.9 (66) 5.6 (62)
 Anti-depressant 1096 8.5 (93) 4.0 (44) 1.6 (18) 1.5 (16)
 Beta blocker 1080 8.5 (92) 5.2 (56) 4.1 (45) 4.0 (43)
 Benzodiazepines 1088 8.9 (98) 3.5 (38) 0.9 (10) 0.7 (8)
Cannabis 1109 23.4 (260) 8.6 (94) 3.7 (40) 2.8 (30)
Any medication or drug 1121 38.8 (435) 19.1 (214) 10.1 (113) 8.5 (95)
  1. N = 1128
  2. aAs multiple selections were possible and some individuals used several substances, values could not be added up per substance group; bN refers to valid values, i.e. all observations without missing values in the respective question; cWeighted according to the distribution of the general population in Germany as reported by the German office of national statistics, n refers to the absolute frequency and % refers to the relative frequency of participants that have taken the respective substance ever in their life, in the last year, last month or last week