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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics for users and non-users in the representative survey of the German population

From: Pharmacological neuroenhancement and the ability to recover from stress – a representative cross-sectional survey among the German population

  Any medication or drug (n = 435) Non-User (n = 686) p-value
Weighteda Unweighted Weighteda Unweighted  
% (n) 95% CI % (n) % (n) 95% CI % (n)  
  min max    min max   
Age 47.7 (17.7) 46.0 49.3 48.0 (17.6) 53.4 (18.1) 52.0 54.8 52.9 (17.9) 0.01
Gender          0.06
 Male 51.7 (225) 47.0 56.4 49.9 (217) 46.0 (316) 42.3 49.7 45.9 (315)  
 Female 48.3 (210) 43.6 53.0 50.1 (218) 54.0 (371) 50.3 57.7 54.1 (372)  
Education          0.82
 No formal degree 1.4 (6) 0.3 2.5 1.2 (5) 1.6 (11) 0.7 2.6 1.3 (9)  
 Secondary modern schoolb 31.3 (133) 26.9 35.7 24.4 (104) 33.2 (227) 29.7 36.8 26.1 (178)  
 Middle schoolc 30.4 (129) 25.9 34.7 31.5 (134) 30.9 (211) 27.4 34.4 31.2 (213)  
 University-entrance diplomad 17.7 (75) 14.0 21.3 23.7 (101) 17.7 (121) 14.9 20.6 22.9 (156)  
 University degree 19.3 (82) 15.5 23.1 19.2 (82) 16.5 (113) 13.8 19.3 18.5 (126)  
Current or last professional position          0.23
 No employment yet 5.3 (23) 3.2 7.4 5.8 (25) 4.5 (31) 3.0 6.1 5.0 (34)  
 Skilled worker 14.4 (62) 11.1 17.7 14.4 (62) 14.2 (97) 11.6 16.8 13.5 (92)  
 Executive employee 10.7 (46) 7.7 13.6 10.9 (47) 14.2 (97) 11.6 16.8 14.5 (99)  
 Non-executive employee 43.3 (187) 38.6 48.0 42.1 (182) 44.0 (300) 40.3 47.7 43.4 (296)  
 Civil servants 5.6 (24) 3.4 7.7 6.7 (29) 6.5 (44) 4.6 8.3 7.6 (52)  
 Self-employed 6.0 (26) 3.8 8.3 6.5 (28) 3.4 (23) 2.0 4.7 3.7 (25)  
 Other 14.8 (64) 11.5 18.2 13.7 (59) 13.2 (90) 10.7 15.7 12.3 (84)  
Shift work          0.14
 Yes 15.4 (44) 11.2 19.6 15.5 (44) 20.0 (75) 15.9 24.0 19.7 (74)  
 No 84.6 (241) 80.4 88.8 84.5 (240) 80.0 (301) 76.0 84.1 80.3 (302)  
Weekly working hours          0.73
 Currently not working 34.0 (147) 29.6 38.5 34.0 (147) 44.8 (307) 41.1 48.5 44.8 (307)  
  < 20 h 6.7 (19) 3.8 9.6 6.3 (18) 4.3 (16) 2.2 6.4 4.3 (16)  
 20–29 8.8 (25) 5.45 12.1 8.5 (24) 9.9 (37) 6.9 13.0 9.4 (35)  
 30–40 50.5 (144) 44.2 56.3 50.4 (143) 50.4 (188) 45.3 55.5 49.9 (186)  
 41–50 24.9 (71) 19.9 29.9 25.4 (72) 25.7 (96) 21.3 30.2 26.5 (99)  
  > 50 9.1 (26) 5.8 12.5 9.5 (27) 9.7 (36) 6.7 12.7 9.9 (37)  
Size place of residence (inhabitants)          0.01
  < 2.000 7.8 (34) 5.3 10.3 6.9 (30) 8.3 (57) 6.2 10.4 6.6 (45)  
 2.000–20.000 29.7 (129) 25.4 34.0 29.2 (127) 37.3 (256) 33.7 40.9 34.5 (237)  
 20.000–100.000 25.8 (112) 21.6 29.9 26.9 (117) 28.7 (197) 25.3 32.1 31.7 (218)  
  > 100.000 36.8 (160) 32.3 41.3 37.0 (161) 36.8 (176) 32.3 41.3 27.2 (187)  
Soft enhancer intake          0.01
 yes 86.3 (372) 83.1 89.6 86.3 (372) 49.5 (334) 45.7 53.3 50.4 (341)  
 no 13.7 (59) 6.6 20.8 13.7 (59) 50.5 (341) 46.7 54.3 49.6 (336)  
  1. N = 1128. Data are given in % with numbers of subjects in parentheses. For age, means with SD in parentheses are given. aweighted according to the distribution of the general population in Germany as reported by the German Office of National Statistics; bequivalent to German “Hauptschule” degree after 9 years of formal education; cequivalent to German “Realschule” degree after 10 years of formal education; dequivalent to German general or subject-specific. “Hochschulreife” or “Fachhochschulreife” degree (entrance qualifications for university or university of applied sciences) after 11. Twelve or 13 years of formal education; p-values: statistically significant differences between the respective group of users and non-users (α = .05); weighted n is rounded; weighted % refers to valid answers