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Table 3 Pharmacy perspectives of codeine as a popular product or problem and cross-country comparisons

From: A comparative analysis of pharmacists’ perspectives on codeine use and misuse – a three country survey

  Ireland (n = 464) (n, %) South Africa (n = 123) (n, %) UK (n = 129) (n, %) Test statistic χ2(df) p-value
Most popular product
 Cough/cold syrup 8 (1.8%) 34 (27.9%) 1 (0.8%) 122.7 (2) < 0.001*
 Combination medication 448 (98.2%) 88 (72.1%) 128 (99.2%)   
 Missing 10 1 0   
 Codeine as significant health problem 302 (65.1%) 91 (74.0%) 75 (58.1%) 7.6 (2) 0.02*
Amount of codeine misused
 Low 177 (38.2%) 40 (32.5%) 59 (45.7%)   
 Medium 204 (44.9%) 56 (46.3%) 59 (45.7%)   
 High 73 (16.1%) 25 (20.7%) 10 (7.8%)   
 Missing 12 2 1 2.9 0.09
  1. *p-value is signficant