Skip to main content

Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street youth who inject drugs: At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), Vancouver, British Columbia, 2005–2015 (n = 383)

From: Socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved youth

  Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a p Valuee
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (per year older) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)   
 Female Gender 1.01 (0.73–1.40)   
 Caucasian Ethnicity 1.09 (0.75–1.60)   
 High school educationb 1.10 (0.79–1.54)   
Drug use related factors
 Any heroin usec 0.58 (0.42–0.81) 0.55 (0.34–0.87) 0.010
 Any prescription opioid usec 0.75 (0.56–1.02)   
 Any crystal meth usec 0.64 (0.47–0.88) 0.65 (0.42–1.01) 0.054
 Any cocaine usec 1.16 (0.86–1.56)   
 Any crack usec 1.08 (0.79–1.47)   
Mental health related factors
 Mental illness history 1.07 (0.76–1.54)   
 Childhood physical or sexual abused 0.82 (0.56–1.18)   
 Depressiond 0.64 (0.43–0.93) 0.64 (0.41–1.01) 0.053
Socioeconomic factors
 Homelessd 0.68 (0.51–0.90) 1.25 (0.86–1.83) 0.246
 Living with familyd 1.76 (1.22–2.55) 1.21 (0.73–2.02) 0.459
 Evictedd 0.44 (0.22–0.89) 0.59 (0.29–1.21) 0.152
 Living in the Downtown Eastsided 0.58 (0.42–0.82) 0.67 (0.42–1.06) 0.085
 Employedd 1.49 (1.11–2.01)   
 Loss of income assistanced 0.54 (0.25–1.16)   
 Accessed health cared 1.11 (0.81–1.54)   
 Incarceratedd 0.57 (0.37–0.88) 0.83 (0.46–1.51) 0.546
 Sex workd 0.40 (0.23–0.72) 0.62 (0.29–1.33) 0.221
 Dealt drugsd 0.37 (0.25–0.56) 0.50 (0.29–0.87) 0.015
 Prohibited street-based income generating activitiesd,f 0.50 (0.34–0.72) 0.41 (0.24–0.69) 0.001
 Illegal income generating
activitiesd,g
0.25 (0.13–0.50) 0.19 (0.06–0.61) 0.005
  1. aVariables significant at p < 0.10 in bivariate models were eligible for possible inclusion in the multivariate model (extended Cox proportional hazards regression model); variables included in the final multivariate model were identified using a backward selection approach to minimize the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)
  2. bDenotes completion of or current enrollment in high school
  3. cIncludes both non-injection and injection use; drug use behaviors were lagged by one visit in order to assess behaviors during the 6 months when participants who ceased were still injecting
  4. dReported for the 6 months prior to the last follow-up visit at which a participant was still injecting
  5. e P-values refer to adjusted HR
  6. fProhibited street-based income generating activities included panhandling, recycling, and squeegeeing
  7. gIllegal income generating activities included theft, robbing, fraud, and other illegal actives excluding sex work and drug dealing