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Table 1 Baseline characteristicsa of street youth who inject drugs stratified by whether they ceased injection at any point during study follow-up: At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), Vancouver, British Columbia, 2005–2015 (n = 383)

From: Socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved youth

  Ceased Injection Drug Useb  
Yes (%) (n = 171) No (%) (n = 212) p Value
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Median age, years (IQR) 22 (20–24) 22 (21–24) 0.769
Gender
 Male 103 (60.2) 144 (67.9) 0.118
 Female 68 (39.8) 68 (32.1)  
Ethnicity
 Caucasian 126 (73.7) 150 (70.8) 0.573
 Non-Caucasian 45 (26.3) 61 (28.8)  
High school educationc
 Yes 59 (34.5) 62 (29.3) 0.281
 No 111 (64.9) 148 (69.8)  
Drug use related factors
 Any heroin use
  Yes 114 (66.7) 175 (82.5) <0.001
  No 57 (33.3) 37 (17.5)  
Any prescription opioid use
  Yes 55 (32.2) 97 (45.8) 0.007
  No 116 (67.8) 115 (54.2)  
Any crystal meth use
  Yes 116 (67.8) 162 (76.4) 0.061
  No 55 (32.2) 50 (23.6)  
Any cocaine use
 Yes 78 (45.6) 97 (45.8) 0.978
 No 93 (54.4) 115 (54.2)  
Any crack use
 Yes 113 (66.1) 131 (61.8) 0.385
 No 58 (33.9) 81 (38.2)  
Mental health related factors
 Mental illness history
 Yes 104 (60.8) 138 (65.1) 0.388
 No 67 (39.2) 74 (34.9)  
Childhood physical or sexual abuse
 Yes 116 (67.8) 142 (67.0) 0.933
 No 45 (26.3) 54 (25.5)  
Depression
 Yes 75 (43.9) 105 (49.5) 0.057
 No 53 (31) 46 (21.7)  
Socioeconomic factors
 Homeless
  Yes 121 (70.8) 160 (75.5) 0.305
  No 49 (28.7) 51 (24.1)  
 Living with family
  Yes 20 (11.7) 26 (12.3) 0.865
  No 151 (88.3) 186 (87.7)  
 Evicted
  Yes 18 (10.5) 25 (11.8) 0.664
  No 82 (48.0) 132 (62.3)  
 Living in the Downtown Eastside
  Yes 64 (37.4) 82 (38.7) 0.802
  No 107 (62.6) 130 (61.3)  
 Employed
  Yes 62 (36.3) 93 (43.9) 0.131
  No 109 (63.7) 119 (56.1)  
 Loss of income assistance
  Yes 13 (7.6) 18 (8.5) 0.899
  No 108 (63.2) 157 (74.1)  
 Accessed health care
  Yes 133 (77.8) 166 (78.3) 0.045
  No 38 (22.2) 46 (21.7)  
 Incarcerated
  Yes 35 (20.5) 46 (21.7) 0.792
  No 135 (78.9) 166 (78.3)  
 Sex work
  Yes 27 (15.8) 31 (14.6) 0.751
  No 144 (84.2) 181 (85.4)  
 Dealt drugs
  Yes 86 (50.3) 108 (50.9) 0.899
  No 85 (49.7) 104 (49.1)  
Prohibited street-based income generating activitiesd
 Yes 54 (31.6) 82 (38.7) 0.149
 No 117 (68.4) 130 (61.3)  
Illegal income generating activitiese
 Yes 40 (23.4) 54 (25.5) 0.638
 No 131 (76.6) 158 (74.5)  
  1. aCharacteristics reported at time of study enrollment
  2. bCells do not uniformly add up to column total due to missing values
  3. cPrior completion of or current enrollment in high school
  4. dProhibited street-based income generating activities included panhandling, recycling, and squeegeeing
  5. eIllegal income generating activities included theft, robbing, fraud, and other illegal actives excluding sex work and drug dealing