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Table 3 Factors independently associated with willingness to receive daily supervised buprenorphine injection at the medical center; univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses with OR estimates based on logistic regression analyses (n = 294 participants)

From: Willingness to receive intravenous buprenorphine treatment in opioid-dependent people refractory to oral opioid maintenance treatment: results from a community-based survey in France

    Univariate analysis Multiple logistic regression analysis
  No willingness Willingnessa       
  N (%) N (%) OR [95CI%] p-value AOR [95CI%] p-value
Questionnaire
 Questionnaire online 50 (30) 32 (25) 1      
 Questionnaire face-to-face 114 (70) 98 (75) 1.34 [0.80; 2.26] 0.266    
Gender
 Male 125 (77) 108 (84) 1      
 Female 37 (23) 21 (16) 0.66 [0.36; 1.19] 0.166    
Age – yearsb
 Median [IQR] 32 [27–38] 34 [28–41] 1.02 [1.00; 1.05] 0.087 1.04 [1.01; 1.07] 0.014
Stable housing
 No 61 (37) 61 (47) 1    1   
 Yes 103 (63) 68 (53) 0.66 [0.41; 1.05] 0.083 0.61 [0.37; 1.01] 0.053
Employment
 No 115 (71) 87 (69) 1      
 Yes 47 (29) 39 (30) 1.10 [0.66; 1.82] 0.721    
Experience of incarceration
 No 103 (64) 74 (58) 1      
 Yes 58 (36) 53 (42) 1.27 [0.79; 2.05] 0.323    
Opioid most injectedc
 Buprenorphine 121 (74) 77 (59) 1    1   
 Heroin 15 (9) 25 (19) 2.62 [1.30; 5.28] 0.007 2.94 [1.42; 6.10] 0.004
 Prescription opiatesd 28 (17) 28 (22) 1.57 [0.87; 2.85] 0.138 1.52 [0.83; 2.76] 0.173
Duration of opioid useb
 Median [IQR] 7 [4–10] 6 [3–11] 1.00 [0.96; 1.04] 0.963    
Main reason for injecting
 To get “high” 24 (17) 22 (22) 1      
 To avoid withdrawal symptoms or to feel good enough for daily functioning 83 (59) 63 (64) 0.83 [0.43; 1.61] 0.578    
 Pleasure of the act 33 (24) 14 (14) 0.46 [0.20; 1.08] 0.076    
Other non-opioid drugs usedc
 No 39 (24) 28 (22) 1      
 Yes 124 (76) 100 (78) 1.12 [0.65; 1.95] 0.680    
Alcohol consumptionc
 No 102 (62) 74 (57) 1      
 Yes 62 (38) 56 (43) 1.24 [0.78; 1.99] 0.360    
Injection-related complications (0–10)
  ≤ 5 complications 139 (85) 105 (81) 1      
  > 5 complications 25 (15) 25 (19) 1.32 [0.72; 2.44] 0.367    
History of overdose
 No 139 (85) 97 (75) 1      
 Yes 25 (15) 33 (25) 1.89 [1.06; 3.38] 0.031    
Currently on OMT
 No 25 (15) 24 (18) 1      
 Yes 139 (85) 106 (82) 0.79 [0.43; 1.47] 0.463    
Self-reported HCV status
 No 106 (69) 86 (70) 1      
 Yes 47 (31) 37 (30) 0.97 [0.58; 1.63] 0.909    
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, IQR Interquartile range, OMT Opioid maintenance treatment
  2. aNumber of participants willing to receive daily supervised IV buprenorphine = 130 (44%);
  3. bin years;
  4. cduring the previous 12 months;
  5. d morphine sulfate, methadone, oxycodone, codeine and others