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Table 2 Factors independently associated with willingness to receive intravenous buprenorphine treatment in the study sample; univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses with OR estimates based on logistic regression analyses (n = 353 participants)

From: Willingness to receive intravenous buprenorphine treatment in opioid-dependent people refractory to oral opioid maintenance treatment: results from a community-based survey in France

    Univariate analysis Multiple logistic regression
  No willingness Willingnessab       
  N (%) N (%) OR [95CI%] p-value AOR [95CI%] p-value
Questionnaire
 Questionnaire online 5 (8) 82 (28) 1    1   
 Questionnaire face-to-face 54 (92) 212 (72) 0.24 [0.09; 0.62] 0.003 0.16 [0.06; 0.44] < 0.001
Gender
 Male 46 (78) 233 (80) 1      
 Female 13 (22) 58 (20) 0.88 [0.45; 1.74] 0.714    
Age – yearsc
 Median [IQR] 33.5 [30–42] 33 [28–40] 0.99 [0.96; 1.02] 0.624    
Stable housing
 No 23 (40) 122 (42) 1      
 Yes 35 (60) 171 (58) 0.92 [0.52; 1.64] 0.779    
Employment
 No 39 (67) 202 (70) 1      
 Yes 19 (33) 86 (30) 0.87 [0.48; 1.60] 0.662    
Experience of incarceration
 No 31 (53) 177 (61) 1      
 Yes 27 (47) 111 (39) 0.72 [0.41; 1.27] 0.257    
Opioid consumed mostd
 Buprenorphine 9 (15) 198 (67) 1    1   
 Heroin 14 (24) 40 (14) 0.13 [0.05; 0.32] < 0.001 0.11 [0.04; 0.29] < 0.001
 Prescription Opiatese 36 (61) 56 (19) 0.07 [0.03; 0.16] < 0.001 0.06 [0.03; 0.14] < 0.001
Duration of opioid usec
 Median [IQR] 7 [3–13] 7 [3–10] 0.99 [0.95; 1.03] 0.562    
Main reason for injecting
 To get “high” 25 (58) 46 (19) 1      
 To avoid withdrawal symptoms or to feel good enough for daily functioning 13 (30) 146 (61) 6.10 [2.89; 12.89] < 0.001    
 Pleasure of the act 5 (12) 47 (20) 5.11 [1.80; 14.49] 0.002    
Other non-opioid drugs usedd
 No 10 (17) 67 (23) 1      
 Yes 49 (83) 224 (77) 0.68 [0.33; 1.42] 0.307    
Alcohol consumptiond
 No 24 (41) 176 (60) 1      
 Yes 35 (59) 118 (40) 0.46 [0.26; 0.81] 0.007    
Injection-related complications (0–10)
  ≤ 5 complications 53 (90) 244 (83) 1    1   
  > 5 complications 6 (10) 50 (17) 1.81 [0.74; 4.44] 0.195 3.30 [1.13; 9.61] 0.029
History of overdose
 No 35 (59) 236 (80) 1    1   
 Yes 24 (41) 58 (20) 0.36 [0.20; 0.65] 0.001 0.28 [0.14; 0.59] 0.001
Currently on OMT
 No 19 (32) 49 (17) 1      
 Yes 40 (68) 245 (83) 2.38 [1.27; 4.44] 0.007    
Self-reported HCV status
 No 35 (64) 192 (70) 1      
 Yes 20 (36) 84 (30) 0.77 [0.42; 1.40] 0.388    
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. aNumber of participants willing to receive IV buprenorphine = 294 (83%)
  3. bPreference regarding the type of injecting system: simple vial = 62%, pre-filled syringe = 25%, do not know = 13%
  4. cin years;
  5. dduring the previous 12 months;
  6. emorphine sulfate, methadone, oxycodone, codeine and others