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Table 2 Median BLL across the users groups

From: Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard

Type of substance Route of use Blood lead level a (μg/dL)
Median [IQR] Minimum Maximum X 2 p-value
Opium (taryak) Smoking (n = 12) 80.0 [45.7–110.0] 36.0 126.0 0.17 0.92
Oral route (n = 154) 80.0 [51.7–120.0] 26 350
Smoking + oral route (n = 43) 85.0 [51.0–116.0] 30 235
Refined opium (shireh) Smoking (n = 5) 96.5 [19.7–143.2] 70 150 2.37 0.31
Oral route (n = 10) 140.0 [66.5–170.5] 58 250
Smoking + oral route (n = 1) 55.7 [55.7–55.7] 55.7 55.7
Opium (Taryak) + refined opium Smoking (n = 4) 48.3 [39.0–56.4] 39 58 2.51 0.28
Oral route (n = 16) 72.1 [38.2–88.7] 27 200
Smoking + oral route (n = 4) 90.0 [54.8–156.5] 52 205
Total Smoking (n = 21) 70 [39.8–110.0] 36 150  
Oral route (n = 180) 80.0 [51.2–120.7] 26 350
Smoking + oral route (n = 48) 85.0 [52.4–113.0] 30 235
  1. Median blood lead level (BLL) differences between routes of administration (smoking, oral and combination users) across the user groups (raw opium; refined opium; and combination users)
  2. a compared using Kruskal Wallis test
  3. Degrees of freedom for BLL (df = 2)