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Table 1 Biochemical analysis of all users of raw opium, refined opium and combination users

From: Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard

Parameter Type of substance
Opium
n = 209
Refined opium
n = 16
Opium + refined opium
n = 24
F/X 2 p-value
BLLa (μg/dL) 80.5 [51.5–117.0] 110.0 [58.0–159.0] 70.9 [39.0–91.0] 2.95 0.23
Haematocrit b (%) 33.5 ± 6.9 33.7 ± 3.7 34.4 ± 7.2 0.15 0.85
Haemoglobin b (g/dL) 10.5 ± 2.3 11.2 ± 2.1 10.6 ± 2.6 0.83 0.43
Blood Ureab (mg/dL) 28.8 ± 13.2 26.1 ± 12.7 33.6 ± 21.7 1.19 0.72
Creatinineb (mg/dL) 1.1 ± 0.9 0.9 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.1 0.10 0.91
ASTa (U/L) 46.0 [29.0–68.0] 27.0 [26.0–46.0] 41.5 [31.2–72.7] 2.86 0.23
ALT a(U/L) 36.0 [20.0–60.0] 21.0 [14.0–33.0] 30.0 [19.0–45.0] 2.87 0.24
  1. Blood lead level (BLL) median concentration [IQR]; hematocrit; hemoglobin; blood urea; creatinine; aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) mean concentrations (+SD) amongst the different user groups (raw opium; refined opium; and combination users)
  2. Degrees of freedom for hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood urea, creatinine (dfb = 2, dfw = 246)
  3. Degrees of freedom for BLL, AST, ALT (df = 2)
  4. a compared using Kruskal Wallis test
  5. b compared using one way ANOVA