Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariate models of HIV services in buprenorphine treatment

From: A mixed methods study of HIV-related services in buprenorphine treatment

  Model 1
Sum of intake practices
Model 2
Delivers HIV education
Model 3
Recommends HIV testing to all new patients
Model 4
On-site HIV testing
IRR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Medical Specialty
 Addiction specialty 1.145 1.049–1.250 0.003 1.437 1.011–2.043 0.043 1.321 0.925–1.885 0.125 0.580 0.396–0.848 0.005
 Psychiatry 1.109 1.020–1.206 0.016 1.213 0.887–1.659 0.226 0.518 0.374–0.720 <.001 0.270 0.183–0.397 <.001
 All others (reference) 1.000    1.000    1.000    1.000   
Individual medical practice 1.031 0.937–1.133 0.535 1.317 0.871–1.989 0.191 0.574 0.387–0.850 0.006 0.459 0.304–0.694 <.001
Group medical practice 0.996 0.905–1.095 0.932 1.358 0.893–2.065 0.153 0.883 0.591–1.319 0.543 0.935 0.617–1.417 0.751
Veterans Administration medical center (VAMC) 1.077 0.915–1.268 0.374 3.659 1.568–8.539 0.003 3.757 1.691–8.348 0.001 5.099 2.496–10.418 <.001
Hospital that is not a VAMC 1.056 0.955–1.167 0.288 1.808 1.177–2.776 0.007 1.366 0.910–2.051 0.133 1.598 1.038–2.460 0.033
Opioid treatment program (OTP dispensing methadone) 1.101 0.961–1.261 0.167 2.925 1.496–5.717 0.002 1.491 0.816–2.725 0.194 1.447 0.799–2.617 0.222
Non-OTP substance use disorder treatment program 0.982 0.886–1.089 0.730 1.169 0.756–1.807 0.482 0.749 0.492–1.141 0.178 0.503 0.313–0.806 0.004
Percentage of past-year patients with heroin use disorder 0.999 0.997–1.001 0.212 0.995 0.987–1.003 0.227 1.002 0.993–1.010 0.709 1.006 0.997–1.014 0.198
Percentage of past-year patients with prescription opioid use disorder 0.996 0.994–0.998 <.001 0.990 0.983–0.997 0.004 0.987 0.980–0.994 <.001 0.998 0.990–1.005 0.525
Age 1.003 1.000–1.007 0.034 0.992 0.980–1.004 0.199 1.010 0.997–1.022 0.120 0.978 0.965–0.991 0.001
Female 1.010 0.931–1.096 0.812 1.140 0.831–1.563 0.416 1.512 1.090–2.096 0.013 1.362 0.974–1.906 0.071
Race and ethnicity             
 White (reference) 1.000    1.000    1.000    1.000   
 Asian American 0.987 0.888–1.096 0.802 0.853 0.577–1.260 0.424 1.463 0.975–2.195 0.066 0.714 0.450–1.131 0.151
 African American, Hispanic/Latino, and all others 1.032 0.927–1.150 0.562 0.862 0.572–1.300 0.479 1.014 0.665–1.547 0.948 0.790 0.499–1.251 0.315
100-patient waiver 0.915 0.854–0.979 0.010 0.823 0.634–1.068 0.143 0.800 0.610–1.048 0.105 0.860 0.646–1.145 0.303
Affordable Care Act (ACA) state typology             
 ACA-resistant state (reference) 1.000    1.000    1.000    1.000   
 ACA-hybrid state 1.044 0.937–1.164 0.432 1.333 0.897–1.980 0.154 1.170 0.703–1.949 0.546 1.014 0.598–1.722 0.958
 ACA-supportive state 1.034 0.947–1.129 0.450 1.331 0.978–1.812 0.069 1.604 1.053–2.444 0.028 1.150 0.744–1.777 0.530
State has below-average prevalence of HIV 0.999 0.923–1.082 0.986 0.913 0.678–1.229 0.549 1.090 0.743–1.600 0.660 1.289 0.875–1.899 0.200
Constant 3.167 2.467–4.064 <.001 2.769 1.026–7.473 0.044 1.453 0.527–4.008 0.470 3.196 1.072–9.528 0.037
Random Effects Parameters:
Variance (constant)
0.002 0.000–0.048   0.019 0.000–8.584   0.155 0.051–0.475   0.136 0.041–0.456  
  1. Notes. Pooled estimates are presented from 30 imputed datasets, with each dataset containing 1174 physicians. The same 30 imputed data sets were used for estimating each of the four models. Mixed effects Poisson regression was used for the model of intake practices, while the other three models were estimated using mixed effects logistic regression. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) and odds ratios (OR) were tested using t statistics with average degrees of freedom of 15,106.99 (Model 1), 29,407.23 (Model 2), 44,194.57 (Model 3), and 47,684.53 (Model 4). F-statistics were F(18, 184,977.8) = 3.77 (p < .001), F(18, 341,410.0) = 3.46 (p < .001), F(18, 367,008.2) = 5.82 (p < .001), and F(18, 453,841.0) = 7.31 (p < .001) for Models 1–4, respectively