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Table 3 Instruments to predict or identify problematic opioid use in individuals with chronic pain

From: Chronic pain and opioid misuse: a review of reviews

• Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM)ab
• Opioid Risk Tool (ORT)a
• Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP) or Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain—Revised (SOAPP-R)a
• Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire (PDUQ) or Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire—Patient Version (PDUQ-p)b
• Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) or Modified Pain Medication Questionnaire (mPMQ)b
• Addiction Behaviors Checklist (ABC)a
• Prescription Opioid Misuse Index (POMI)b
• Pain Assessment and Documentation Tool (PADT)b
• Prescribed Opioid Difficulties Scale (PODS)b
• Physician Opioid Therapy Questionnaire (POTQ)a
• Other instruments to assess substance use not specific to opioids (e.g., DSM-IV, CAGE Questionnaire, Addiction Severity Index, Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Screening Instrument for Substance Abuse Potential)
  1. aDenotes instruments often used to predict risk of problematic opioid use prior to initiating opioid therapy
  2. bDenotes instruments often used to identify current problematic opioid use during ongoing management of opioid therapy