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Table 3 Factors associated with any binge drinking in multivariable analyses among male and female university students in nine ASEAN countries

From: Health and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries

Variables in the model Male Female
AOR (95% CI)† AOR (95% CI)‡
Age groups
 18–19 Reference Reference
 20–21 2.30 (1.61–3.28)*** 1.46 (1.15–1.85)**
 22 or older 4.67 (3.30–6.59)*** 1.86 (1.44–2.41)***
Living situation
 Not with parents/guardians Reference Reference
 With parents/guardians 0.69 (0.55–0.86)*** 1.12 (0.87–1.45)
Family economic status
 Not well off/poor   Reference
 Wealthy/quite well off   0.61 (0.49–0.77)***
Country category
 Upper-middle/high income Reference Reference
 Lower-middle income 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.37 (0.29–0.47)***
Level of involvement in organized religious activity
 Low Reference Reference
 Medium 1.30 (0.96–1.68) 1.42 (1.10–1.83)**
 High 0.72 (0.48–1.07) 0.85 (0.60–1.21)
Level of involvement in non-organized religious activity
 Low Reference Reference
 Medium 0.95 (0.67–1.33) 1.19 (0.92–1.54)
 High 0.29 (0.19–0.44)*** 0.35 (0.25–0.48)***
Knowledge of alcohol-heart disease link 0.79 (0.64–0.98)* 0.67 (0.56–0.82)***
Knowledge of alcohol-high blood pressure link   1.22 (1.01–1.49)*
Weak beliefs in importance of limiting alcohol 0.89 (0.85–0.93)*** 0.84 (0.81–0.88)***
Subjective health status 0.92 (0.72–0.99)*  
Level of life satisfaction
 Low Reference Reference
 Medium 0.54 (0.42–0.69)*** 0.53 (0.42–0.67)***
 High 0.46 (0.30–0.72)*** 0.71 (0.51–0.99)*
Current tobacco use 3.50 (2.50–4.91)*** 6.01 (3.89–9.29)***
Past year illicit drug use 2.94 (2.24–3.87)*** 2.58 (2.05–3.25)***
Depressive symptoms 1.58 (1.10–2.27)* 1.38 (1.02–1.87)*
Physical activity
 Low Reference Reference
 Medium 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 1.06 (0.85–1.32)
 High 1.50 (1.15–1.97)** 1.38 (1.06–1.79)*
  1. Abbreviations: AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; COR crude odds ratio
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001
  3. Hosmer & Lemeshow Chi-square = 13.57, P = 0.09; Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.31
  4. Hosmer & Lemeshow Chi-square = 26.64, P < 0.001; Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.25