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Table 5 Factor associated with non-adherence among respondents

From: Adherence to methadone maintenance treatment and associated factors among patients in Vietnamese mountainside areas

Characteristics Missing dose in the last 4 days Missing dose at last weekend Adherence (VAS) Optimal adherence (MoH standard)
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI Coef. 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age      0.44** 0.08; 0.79 1.03 0.99; 1.09
Education (vs < High school)
 • High school 3.81** 1.04; 13.94       
 • >High school      10.79 −3.26; 24.85   
Employment (vs. Unemployment)
 • Self-employed 0.28** 0.08; 0.97       
 • Worker/Farmer        0.11** 0.02; 0.67
 • Other        0.24* 0.05; 1.24
HIV status (vs. Negative)         
 • Positive 0.20* 0.04; 1.09 0.04 0.00; 2.47 8.26 −4.35; 20.86   
Income quintile (vs. poorest)
 • Poor 5.56** 1.09; 28.35 2.70 0.65; 11.25    0.40* 0.15; 1.04
 • Middle        0.33** 0.13; 0.88
 • Rich 2.99 0.61; 14.76       
 • Richest 4.14* 0.82; 20.91      0.51 0.19; 1.38
Location (Son Duong vs. Tuyen Quang)        0.51 0.21; 1.22
Number of drug rehabilitation (vs. None)
 • 1 time 0.10*** 0.02; 0.52      3.97** 1.23; 12.83
 • 2 times        3.03* 0.86; 10.61
 • > 2 times 0.33* 0.10; 1.15 0.14* 0.01; 1.38    2.84* 0.89; 9.12
Having problem in self-care (Yes vs No) 0.03** 0.00; 0.94 2.12 0.25; 18.28     
Having problem in usual activities (Yes vs. No)      7.41 −0.02; 14.84 3.74** 1.16; 12.07
Pain/Discomfort (Yes vs No) 0.11* 0.01; 1.53 6.48** 1.43; 29.42    0.26 0.05; 1.41
Anxiety/Depression        0.27 0.05; 1.35
EQ index 0.01** 0.00; 0.60      0.02** 0.00; 0.88
EQ VAS      0.22** 0.03; 0.42   
MMT duration (months) 1.00 0.94; 1.07 0.95 0.87; 1.04 −0.32** −0.62; −0.01 0.97 0.93; 1.01
Adherence supporting measures
 • Mobile phone (Yes vs No) 0.09** 0.01; 0.96      0.37* 0.14; 1.02
 • Reminded by family member (Yes vs. No)      13.02*** 6.65; 19.39 2.75** 1.24; 6.08
ARV treatment (Yes vs. No)    0.08 0.00; 3.06 9.31 −3.55; 22.16   
Current smoking (Yes vs No) 0.38 0.12; 1.27 0.16** 0.03; 0.79     
Current drug use (Yes vs. No)      −5.77 −13.13; 1.58   
  1. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1