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Table 2 Multinomial Logistic Regression Models of Discharge Dispositions for ED Visits Involving Drug Misuse and Abuse, DAWN 2004–2011 (N = 14,245,776)

From: Gender differences in discharge dispositions of emergency department visits involving drug misuse and abuse—2004-2011

  Released to Police/Jaila Referral to Outpatient Detox/Drug Treatmenta Inpatient Detox or Psychiatric Admissiona General Hospital Admissiona Transferred to Another Facilitya Left Against Medical Advicea
RRR 95% CI p RRR 95% CI p RRR 95% CI p RRR 95% CI p RRR 95% CI p RRR 95% CI p
Year 0.95 0.89–1.01 0.076 0.96 0.88–1.04 0.287 0.86 0.78–0.95 0.002 0.98 0.93–1.02 0.304 1.04 0.97–1.11 0.328 0.96 0.93–.99 0.034
Male Gender 1.96 1.75–2.19 <.001 1.08 0.99–1.18 0.083 1.02 0.92–1.13 0.661 1.00 0.94–1.06 0.913 1.04 0.95–1.14 0.420 1.30 1.17–1.45 <.001
Age (years)
 18–20 (reference) 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 21–34 1.18 1.02–1.37 0.024 1.46 1.27–1.68 <.001 1.91 1.66–2.19 <.001 1.86 1.61–2.15 <.001 1.60 1.42–1.80 <.001 1.60 1.35–1.89 <.001
 35–54 1.21 0.96–1.51 0.100 1.36 1.17–1.59 <.001 2.26 1.97–2.60 <.001 3.13 2.60–3.76 <.001 1.82 1.62–2.05 <.001 1.81 1.50–2.18 <.001
 55+ 0.81 0.56–1.17 0.259 0.65 0.54–0.78 <.001 1.32 1.10–1.58 0.003 4.38 3.60–5.32 <.001 1.09 0.95–1.24 0.231 1.37 1.06–1.77 0.015
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White (reference) 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.18 1.02–1.37 0.024 0.72 0.54–0.97 0.030 1.10 0.89–1.37 0.386 1.12 0.94–1.34 0.197 0.82 0.61–1.11 0.200 0.79 0.69–0.91 0.001
 Hispanic 1.69 1.39–2.06 <.001 0.71 0.56–0.90 0.005 1.11 0.87–1.42 0.406 0.71 0.56–0.90 0.005 0.83 0.58–1.19 0.303 0.68 0.58–0.81 <.001
 Other 1.50 0.97–2.30 0.067 0.97 0.64–1.46 0.879 1.87 1.24–2.81 0.003 1.04 0.85–1.28 0.712 1.51 1.04–2.19 0.031 0.77 0.50–1.17 0.223
Misuse or Abuse Drug Categoryb
 Alcohol only (reference) 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Prescription Drugs only 0.70 0.56–0.88 0.002 0.48 0.40–0.59 <.001 0.63 0.48–0.83 0.001 0.76 0.67–0.87 <.001 0.73 0.55–0.95 0.020 1.34 1.02–1.77 0.038
 Illicit Drugs only 1.87 1.42–2.48 <.001 1.81 1.44–2.27 <.001 1.60 1.19–2.15 0.002 0.75 0.63–0.88 0.001 0.94 0.81–1.09 0.391 2.05 1.57–2.68 <.001
 Illicit Drugs w/ Alcohol 1.34 1.09–1.64 0.005 2.35 1.87–2.96 <.001 2.40 1.96–2.94 <.001 0.64 0.55–0.74 <.001 1.15 0.95–1.38 0.146 1.45 1.09–1.95 0.012
 Prescription Drugs w/ Alcohol 1.09 0.80–1.48 0.597 0.95 0.74–1.22 0.677 1.10 0.85–1.42 0.479 1.02 0.88–1.17 0.832 1.13 0.94–1.35 0.188 1.42 1.01–1.99 0.041
 Illicit w/ Prescription Drugs 1.7 1.33–2.17 <.001 1.29 1.05–1.59 0.018 0.87 0.67–1.13 0.301 0.99 0.84–1.17 0.938 0.98 0.82–1.18 0.855 1.76 1.29–2.39 <.001
 Illicit w/ Prescription Drugs & Alcohol 2.05 1.46–2.87 <.001 1.57 1.21–2.05 0.001 1.26 0.92–1.71 0.149 0.89 0.73–1.08 0.230 1.34 1.10–1.63 0.004 1.79 1.19–2.68 0.005
  1. aCompared to the probability of being discharged home (base outcome)
  2. bPrescription drug use refers to nomedical use of pharmaceuticals
  3. Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) estimates were tested using t statistics with 1331 degrees of freedom
  4. Design-based F-statistics: F(84, 1331) = 94.89 (p < 0.001)