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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression analysis of nonmedical prescription opioid use among people who inject drugs in San Francisco (N = 702). Outcome variable: NMPOU past 24 h

From: Physical pain is common and associated with nonmedical prescription opioid use among people who inject drugs

Characteristic MODEL 1a AOR (95% CI) MODEL 2b AOR (95% CI) MODEL 3c
AOR (95% CI)
MODEL 4d AOR (95% CI) MODEL 5e AOR (95% CI) MODEL 6f AOR (95% CI)
Average pain past 24 h
 Pain median or less 0.85 (0.49–1.47) - - - - -
 Pain above median 2.15 (1.21–3.80)* - - - - -
Pain interference with general activity past 24 h
 Interference median or less - 0.96 (0.54–1.70) - - - -
 Interference above median - 1.82 (1.04–3.21)* - - - -
Pain interference with walking ability past 24 h
 Interference median or less - - 1.05 (0.61–1.80) - - -
 Interference above median - - 2.52 (1.37–4.63)** - - -
Pain interference with physical ability past 24 h
 Interference median or less - - - 0.87 (0.48–1.57) - -
 Interference above median - - - 2.01 (1.16–3.45)* - -
Pain interference with sleep past 24 h
 Interference median or less - - - - 0.91 (0.50–1.65) -
 Interference above median - - - - 1.98 (1.13–3.48)* -
Pain interference with enjoyment of life past 24 h
 Interference median or less - - - - - 1.11 (0.63-1.94)
 Interference above median - - - - - 1.79 (1.02-3.15)*
Male sex 1.09 (0.64–1.86) 1.14 (0.67–1.93) 1.11 (0.65–1.90) 1.08 (0.63–1.84) 1.12 (0.66–1.90) 1.09 (0.64–1.86)
Age (continuous) 0.96
(0.94–0.98)***
0.96
(0.94–0.98)***
0.96
(0.94–0.98)***
0.96
(0.94–0.98)***
0.96
(0.94–0.98)***
0.96
(0.94–0.98)***
Lifetime psychiatric diagnosis 1.15 (0.72–1.84) 1.17 (0.73–1.87) 1.17 (0.73 1.18 (0.74–1.88) 1.09 (0.68–1.76) 1.18 (0.74–1.88)
Homeless 1.29 (0.78–2.13) 1.25 (0.75–2.06) 1.86) 1.25 (0.76–2.07) 1.24 (0.75–2.05) 1.24 (0.75–2.05)
OST past 30 days 1.64 (1.00–2.69)* 1.61 (0.98–2.63) 1.61 (0.98–2.64) 1.62 (0.99–2.66) 1.63 (0.99–2.67) 1.60 (0.98–2.62)
Street heroin use past 24 h 3.42
(2.17–5.39)***
3.33
(2.12–5.23)***
3.36
(2.14–5.30)***
3.31
(2.10–5.21)***
3.34
(2.12–5.25)***
3.30
(2.10–5.19)***
Healthcare need past 6 monthsg
 Met healthcare need 1.60 (0.69–3.70) 1.60 (0.69–3.70) 1.58 (0.68–3.66) 1.69 (0.73–3.91) 1.63 (0.70–3.78) 1.65 (0.71–3.81)
 Unmet healthcare need 2.58 (1.20–5.55)* 2.58 (1.20–5.54)* 2.53 (1.18–5.66)* 2.72 (1.27–5.85)* 2.74 (1.28–5.90)* 2.65 (1.24–5.69)*
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.005, ***p < 0.001. P-value calculated with Wald Chi-square test
  2. All models are adjusted for sex, age, lifetime psychiatric diagnosis, homelessness, opiate substitution treatment, use of street heroin and unmet healthcare needs
  3. aExplanatory variable Pain intensity. Reference category is No pain
  4. bExplanatory variable Pain interference with general activity. Reference category is No pain interference
  5. cExplanatory variable Pain interference with walking. Reference category is No pain interference
  6. dExplanatory variable Pain interference with physical ability. Reference category is No pain interference
  7. eExplanatory variable Pain interference with sleep. Reference category is No pain interference
  8. fExplanatory variable Pain interference with enjoyment of life. Reference category is No pain interference
  9. gHealthcare need for an urgent/chronical/dental health problem. Reference category is No healthcare need past 6 months