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Table 2 Pain prevalence and association with use of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the past 24 h among people who inject drugs in San Francisco (N = 702). Bivariate logistic regression analysis

From: Physical pain is common and associated with nonmedical prescription opioid use among people who inject drugs

Pain characteristics Median (IQR) Past 24 h NMPOU n (%) Total sample n (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Pain past 24 ha NA 53 (51.5%) 335 (47.7%) 1.19 (0.78–1.81)
Pain duration in monthsc 36 (6–141)    
 No pain (0)   50 (48.5%) 370 (52.7%) 1.00
 Duration median or less (1–36)   27 (26.2%) 172 (24.5%) 1.19 (0.72–1.98)
 Duration above median (37–776)   26 (25.2%) 160 (22.8%) 1.24 (0.74–2.08)
Pain single worst location (mutually exclusive) NA    
 No pain (0)   50 (49.0%) 367 (52.3%) 1.00
 Head (1)   4 (3.9%) 17 (2.4%) 1.95 (0.61–6.22)
 Neck/shoulder/back (2)   22 (21.6%) 122 (17.4%) 1.40 (0.81–2.42)
 Extremities (3)   18 (17.6%) 158 (22.5%) 0.82 (0.46–1.45)
 Abdomen/genitals (4)   8 (7.8%) 34 (4.8%) 1.95 (0.84–4.55)
Missing values (multiple answers)    4 (0.6%)  
Pain location (not mutually exclusive) NA    
 Head   10 (9.7%) 31 (4.4%) NA4
 Neck/shoulders   10 (9.7%) 77 (11.0%) NA4
 Back   27 (26.2%) 138 (19.7%) NA4
 Upper limbs   8 (7.8%) 67 (9.5%) NA4
 Lower limbs   28 (27.2%) 190 (27.1%) NA4
 Abdomen/genitals   10 (9.7%) 51 (7.3%) NA4
Average pain past 24 hc 6 (5–7)    
 No pain (0)   51 (49.5%) 375 (53.4%) 1.00
 Pain median or less (1–6)   24 (23.3%) 201 (28.6%) 0.86 (0.51–1.45)
 Pain above median (7–10)   28 (27.2%) 126 (17.9%) 1.82 (1.09–3.03)*
Pain interference with general activity past 24 hc 7 (5–9)    
 No interference (0)   55 (53.4%) 412 (58.7%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–7)   21 (20.4%) 165 (23.5%) 0.95 (0.55–1.62)
 Interference above median (8–10)   27 (26.2%) 125 (17.8%) 1.79 (1.07–2.99)*
Pain interference with mood past 24 hb 7 (5–9)    
 No interference (0)   54 (52.4%) 415 (59.1%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–7)   26 (25.2%) 166 (23.6%) 1.24 (0.75–2.06)
 Interference above median (8–10)   23 (22.3%) 121 (17.2%) 1.57 (0.92–2.68)
Pain interference with walking ability past 24 hb 8 (5–9)    
 No interference (0)   55 (53.4%) 422 (60.1%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–8)   25 (24.3%) 188 (26.8%) 1.02 (0.62–1.70)
 Interference above median (9–10)   23 (22.3%) 92 (13.1%) 2.22 (1.28–3.86)**
Pain interference with physical ability past 24 hb 7 (5–9)    
 No interference (0)   54 (52.4%) 404 (57.5%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–7)   19 (18.4%) 161 (22.9%) 0.87 (0.50–1.52)
 Interference above median (8–10)   30 (29.1%) 137 (19.5%) 1.82 (1.11–2.98)*
Pain interference with relationships past 24 hc 6 (3–8)    
 No interference (0)   60 (58.3%) 465 (66.2%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–6)   21 (20.4%) 122 (17.4%) 1.40 (0.82–2.42)
 Interference above median (7–10)   22 (21.4%) 115 (16.4%) 1.60 (0.93–2.74)
Pain interference with sleep past 24 hb 7 (5–10)    
 No interference (0)   56 (54.4%) 425 (60.5%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–7)   19 (18.4%) 148 (21.1%) 0.97 (0.56–1.70)
 Interference above median (8–10)   28 (27.2%) 129 (18.4%) 1.83 (1.10–3.03)*
Pain interference with enjoyment of life past 24 hc 7 (5–9)    
 No interference (0)   54 (52.4%) 412 (58.7%) 1.00
 Interference median or less (1–7)   23 (22.3%) 163 (23.2%) 1.09 (0.64–1.84)
 Interference above median (8–10)   26 (25.2%) 127 (18.1%) 1.71 (1.02–2.86)*
  1. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.005. P-value calculated with Wald Chi-square test
  2. 1. amissing value recoded as “no pain”. 2. bmissing values recoded as “no pain”. 3. cmissing values recoded as “no pain”
  3. 4. Bivariate analysis was not conducted since pain locations were not mutually exclusive