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Table 1 Sample characteristics among people who inject drugs in San Francisco, for total sample (N = 702) and subjects reporting past 24 h pain (n = 335)

From: Physical pain is common and associated with nonmedical prescription opioid use among people who inject drugs

Characteristic Pain past 24 h n (%) Total sample n (%) P-value
Mean age (range) 46.6 (19–69) 45.1 (18–69) <0.001***
Sex
 Female 74 (22.1%) 147 (20.9%) 0.48
 Male 261 (77.9%) 555 (79.1%)  
Race
 White 179 (53.4%) 379 (54.0%) 0.91
 Black 86 (25.7%) 181 (25.8%)  
 Hispanic 20 (6.0%) 46 (6.6%)  
 Other 48 (14.3%) 91 (13.0%)  
Missing 2 (0.6%) 5 (0.7%)  
Homeless 208 (62.1%) 442 (63.0%) 0.65
Graduated from high school/got a GED 250 (74.6%) 509 (72.5%) 0.23
Ever diagnosed with a psychiatric illness* 207 (61.8%) 396 (56.4%) 0.01*
Health care need for an acute, chronic or dental problem in the past 6 months*
 No need 43 (12.8%) 122 (17.4%) <0.01*
 Met healthcare need 94 (28.1%) 204 (29.1%)  
 Unmet healthcare need 198 (59.1%) 376 (53.6%)  
NMPOU past 24 h 53 (15.8%) 103 (14.7%) 0.41
NMPOU (except methadone and buprenorphine) past 24 h 50 (14.9%) 89 (12.7%) 0.09
Non-medical use of tranquilizers/sedatives past 24 h 23 (6.9%) 43 (6.1%) 0.44
Non-medical use of prescription stimulants past 24 h 2 (0.6%) 6 (0.9%) 0.48
Non-medical use of Methadone past 24 h 9 (2.7%) 23 (3.3%) 0.40
Non-medical use of buprenorphine/Suboxone past 24 h 0 1 (0.1%) NA
Non-medical use of Phenergan past 24 h 3 (0.9%) 4 (0.6%) 0.27
Used Speedball (heroin/cocaine or heroin/crack) past 24 h 21 (6.3%) 42 (6.0%) 0.76
Used Goofball (heroin/methamphetamine) past 24 h 24 (7.2%) 40 (5.7%) 0.11
Used Crack or Rock Cocaine past 24 h 66 (19.7%) 139 (19.8%) 0.95
Used Powder Cocaine past 24 h 6 (1.8%) 15 (2.1%) 0.55
Used Methamphetamine past 24 h 92 (27.5%) 194 (27.6%) 0.92
Used Heroin past 24 h 80 (23.9%) 173 (24.6%) 0.65
Used Marijuana for non-medical reasons past 24 h 124 (37.0%) 258 (36.8%) 0.89
Used any type of street heroin past 24 h 93 (27.8%) 194 (27.6%) 0.94
  1. P-value calculated with Pearson’s Chi-square test for all variables except age, where Student’s T-test was used
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. ***p < 0.001