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Table 2 Treatment outcomes by gender at six months

From: Men’s and women’s response to treatment and perceptions of outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of injectable opioid assisted treatment for severe opioid use disorder

Outcomes at six months Women
N = 62
Men
N = 140
Women vs. Men
N = 202
Street opioid use
 Days illicit heroin usea 3.69 (2.08, 5.52) 3.84 (2.54, 5.27) −0.15 (−2.16, 1.98)
 Days illicit opioid usea 5.28 (3.18, 7.59) 4.84 (3.43, 6.26) 0.44 (−1.93, 3.17)
 Proportion of urine positive for street heroin markersc 0.27 (0.18, 0.40) 0.25 (0.16, 0.35) OR
1.16 (0.53, 2.51)
Retention in treatment
 Proportion of participants receiving treatment ≥28 daysc 0.83 (0.72, 0.91) 0.79 (0.71, 0.85) OR
1.34 (0.62, 2.87)
MAP health symptom scores
 Physical healthb 12.29 (10.43, 14.15) 11.37 (10.07, 12.67) 0.92 (−1.38, 3.23)
 Psychological health*b 6.95 (5.01, 8.90) 9.35 (8.01, 10.69) −2.39 (−4.72, −0.07)
Other outcomes
 Days of non-legal activitya 3.61 (1.61, 5.90) 3.14 (1.86, 4.53) 0.47 (−1.82, 3.14)
 Days of crack cocaine usea 7.10 (4.70, 9.76) 5.16 (3.26, 7.62) 1.95 (−0.08, 4.28)
  1. *Indicates significance below p < 0.05
  2. Differences in proportions (urine positive and retention) are presented as odds ratios (OR). For all other variables mean difference in days or scores are presented. Both proportions and means are presented with 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  3. All models were adjusted for treatment arm and the average daily dose. Models were also adjusted for baseline values using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to account for gender difference at baseline. This is with the exception of the retention variable, and urine positive for street heroin markers (there is no baseline value for retention, and as per inclusion criteria all patients had urine positive for street opioids at baseline)
  4. aContinuous outcomes with an excess of zero counts: Zero-inflated Poisson regression was used. Adjusted mean difference between the two gender groups and confidence intervals were estimated by the Bootstrap method
  5. bContinuous outcomes: Linear regression models were used to estimate the mean difference and 95% CI
  6. cBinary outcomes: Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CIs to compare the proportions between groups