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Table 1 Opioids in drivers: Concentrations in oral fluid, laboratory confirmation data (ng/ml)

From: Roadside opioid testing of drivers using oral fluid: the case of a country with a zero tolerance law, Spain

  Opioid Alone Opioid in combination Total
median [with percentiles 25 and 75 (Q1-Q3)] median [with percentiles 25 and 75 (Q1-Q3)] median [with percentiles 25 and 75 (Q1-Q3])
6-AM n = 8 n = 26 n = 34
1.56 8.35 5.71
[0.32–4.40 [3.65–200.00] [1.53–84.05]
Morphine   n = 20 n = 20
37.40 37.40
[2.84–200.00] [2.84–200.00]
Codeine n = 10 n = 16 n = 26
67.0 17.00 40.55
[4.50–104.21] [1.70–186.06] [2.10–120.77]
Methadone n = 10 n = 14 n = 24
1.65 2.70 1.71
[0.10–5.42] [0.10–71.87] [0.10–15.30]
  1. 6-AM 6-acetylmorphine
  2. THC delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol