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Table 3 Results of logistic regressions predicting support for various statements concerning alcohol and intoxication at football arenasa

From: Public opinion on alcohol consumption and intoxication at Swedish professional football events

Statement (dependent variable) Male gender
OR (95% CI), p b
High levelc of education
OR (95% CI), p
Frequent visitor at a football arenad OR (95% CI), p Hazardous alcohol usee
OR (95% CI), p
Alcoholics beverages should be sold at football arenas 3.5 (2.9–4.3), <0.001 NS 1.8 (1.5–2.3), < 0.001 2.4 (2.0–2.9), < 0.001
Medium strength beer should be sold at football arenas 2.7 (2.3–3.2), <0.001 NS 1.7 (1.3–2.1), < 0.001 2.1 (1.8–2.5), < 0.001
Full strength beer/wine should be sold at football arenas 4.1 (3.4–5.0), <0.001 NS 1.6 (1.3–2.1), < 0.001 2.7 (2.2–3.2), < 0.001
Hard liquor should be sold at football arenas 3.6 (2.7–4.8), <0.001 NS NS 1.9 (1.5–2.5), < 0.001
Obviously intoxicated persons should be denied entrance to football arenas NS NS NS 0.7 (0.5–0.9), 0.018
Obviously intoxicated spectators should be denied alcohol service at football arenas NS NS NS NS
Obviously intoxicated spectators should be evicted from the arena NS NS NS NS
There should be sections at football arenas where alcohol cannot be purchased NS NS 0.5 (0.4–0.6), < 0.001 NS
The number of bars and booths selling alcohol at football arenas should be limited 0.4 (0.4–0.5), <0.001 NS 0.6 (0.5–0.7), < 0.001 0.6 (0.5–0.7), < 0.001
More people would attend football matches if the number of obviously intoxicated spectators was reduced 0.6 (0.5–0.7), <0.001 NS 0.4 (0.3–0.5), < 0.001 0.7 (0.6–0.9), 0.001
The atmosphere at the arena grandstand would improve if the number of obviously intoxicated spectators was reduced 0.4 (0.3–0.5), <0.001 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 0.010 0.3 (0.2–0.4), < 0.001 0.6 (0.5–0.8), < 0.001
  1. aAll models were adjusted for age
  2. bOdds Ratios (ORs), 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) and p values presented. NS: non-significant p values (i.e., ≥ 0.05)
  3. cUniversity/college/folk high school vs elementary school/senior high school
  4. dFrequent visitors were defined as participants who reported having attended a football match in the Swedish Premier Football League (SPFL) or the second highest division on one or more occasions during the past football season (i.e., the football season 2015)
  5. eHazardous alcohol use defined as an AUDIT-C score of ≥ 4 for women and ≥ 5 for men