Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison variables between heroin users with and without sleep disturbance

From: Sleep disturbance and its associations with severity of dependence, depression and quality of life among heroin-dependent patients: a cross-sectional descriptive study

  Sleep disturbance t df p-Value (t-test)
Yes (PSQI > 5) No (PSQ5)
Continuous Variables N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD)
Age (years) 392 36.4 (7.5) 122 36.2 (7.5) −0.32 512 0.751
Education (years) 392 9.9 (2.0) 122 10.0 (1.9) 0.38 512 0.704
Life events 392 1.9 (2.2) 122 1.3 (2.0) −2.60 512 0.01*
Family APGAR score 392 5.9 (4.1) 122 5.3 (4.7) −1.43 512 0.156
Criminal convictions (substance) 392 2.5 (1.7) 122 2.2 (1.6) −1.97 512 0.05*
Criminal convictions (nonsubstance) 392 1.4 (1.6) 122 1.4 (1.4) −0.31 512 0.756
Onset age of heroin use (years) 392 25.4 (6.5) 122 26.5 (7.2) 1.64 512 0.102
Length of heroin use (years) 392 11.1 (5.7) 122 9.7 (5.7) −2.24 512 0.026*
Dose of heroin (half qian/day)a 392 6.2 (6.3) 122 7.5 (7.3) 1.79 512 0.075
SDS 392 7.5 (2.6) 122 5.5 (2.5) −7.55 512 <0.001*
CAGE 392 1.4 (1.4) 122 1.2 (1.3) −1.13 512 0.259
Cigarette consumption 392 1.2 (0.6) 122 1.1 (0.4) −2.70 512 0.007*
CES-D 392 23.6 (9.3) 122 14.7 (7.8) −9.59 512 <0.001*
QOL-physical health 392 12.4 (1.9) 122 14.2 (2.2) 8.15 512 <0.001*
QOL-psychological 392 11.7 (2.2) 122 13.3 (2.6) 6.42 512 <0.001*
QOL-social relations 392 11.9 (2.3) 122 13.1 (2.4) 5.13 512 <0.001*
QOL-environment 392 11.9 (2.0) 122 13.0 (2.4) 5.14 512 <0.001*
  Sleep disturbance χ2 df p-Value (Chi-square)
Yes (PSQI > 5) No (PSQ5)
Categorical Variables N % N %
Male 349 89.0% 113 92.6% 1.32 1 0.251
Female 43 11.0% 9 7.4%    
Single 185 47.2% 66 54.1% 3.26 2 0.196
Married 84 21.4% 28 23.0%    
Divorced, separated, or widowed 123 31.4% 28 23.0%    
Employed Yes 219 55.9% 83 68.0% 5.68 1 0.017*
  No 173 44.1% 39 32.0%    
Injection drug use Yes 308 78.6% 79 64.8% 9.55 1 0.002*
  No 84 21.4% 43 35.2%    
Needle sharing Yes 38 9.7% 6 4.9% 2.71 1 0.100
  No 354 90.3% 116 95.1%    
  1. LTE List of Threatening Experiences; APGAR Adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, resolve score; SDS Severity of Dependence Scale; CES-D Center of epidemiological study depression; PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; QOL World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF
  2. aHalf Qian = 1.875 g (number of half Qians of heroin used per day)
  3. * p-Value <0.05