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Table 1 Socio-demographic, substance, and psychiatric characteristics in heroin users

From: Sleep disturbance and its associations with severity of dependence, depression and quality of life among heroin-dependent patients: a cross-sectional descriptive study

Continuous variables Numbera Mean (SD)
Age (years) 514 36.3 (7.5)
Education (years) 514 9.9 (2.0)
Life events 514 1.8 (2.2)
Family APGAR score 514 5.8 (4.3)
Criminal convictions (substance) 514 2.4 (1.7)
Criminal convictions (nonsubstance) 514 1.4 (1.6)
Onset age of heroin use (years) 514 25.6 (6.7)
Length of heroin use (years) 514 10.7 (5.8)
Dose of heroin (half qian/day)b 514 6.5 (6.5)
SDS 514 7.0 (2.7)
CAGE 514 1.4 (1.4)
Cigarette consumption 514 1.2 (0.5)
CES-D 514 21.5 (9.7)
QOL-physical health 514 12.8 (2.1)
QOL-psychological 514 12.1 (2.4)
QOL-social relations 514 12.2 (2.4)
QOL-environment 514 12.1 (2.2)
Global PSQI 514 9.1 (4.3)
Categorical Variables N %
Sex
 Male 462 89.9
 Female 52 10.1
Marital status
 Single 251 48.8
 Married 112 21.8
 Divorced, separated, or widowed 151 29.4
Employment Yes 302 58.8
No 212 41.2
Injection drug use Yes 387 75.3
No 127 24.7
Needle sharing Yes 44 8.6
No 470 91.4
Sleep disturbance Yes (PSQI > 5) 392 76.3
No (PSQ5) 122 23.7
  1. LTE List of Threatening Experiences; APGAR adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, resolve score; SDS Severity of Dependence Scale; CES-D The center of epidemiological study depression; PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; QOL The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF
  2. aNumber of total recruited patients = 598, number of missing data = 84. Total 514 participants were analyzed
  3. bHalf Qian = 1.875 g (number of half Qians of heroin used per day)