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Table 2 Factors associated with illicit drug use in the past 12 months among university students in nine countries in ASEAN

From: Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN)

Variables in the model Frequent use
(≥10 times vs. never)
Infrequent use
(1–9 times vs. never)
Never vs. ever use
AOR (95% CI)a AOR (95% CI)b AOR (95% CI)c
Age (in years)
 18–19 (31.4%) Reference Reference Reference
 20–21 (41.5%) 1.29 (0.65–2.57) 1.19 (0.70–2.01) 0.83 (0.48–1.43)
 22–30 (27.0%) 0.88 (0.42–1.82) 1.33 (0.65–2.75) 0.79 (0.39–1.59)
Gender
 Female (62.5%) Reference Reference Reference
 Male (37.5%) 1.03 (0.68–1.55) 0.71 (0.53–0.96)* 1.34 (1.02–1.76)*
Family background
 Quite well off/wealthy (36.0%) Reference Reference Reference
 Quite poor, not well off (64.0%) 1.13 (0.80–1.60) 0.81 (0.54–1.23) 1.18 (0.80–1.73)
Living situationd
 With parents (35.7%) Reference Reference Reference
 Away from parents (64.3%) 0.60 (0.39–0.91)* 0.76 (0.66–0.88)*** 1.36 (0.97–1.92)
Country income categories
 Upper-middle/high income (38.7%) Reference Reference Reference
 Lower middle income (61.3%) 3.36 (1.28–8.82)* 2.83 (2.41–3.33)*** 0.25 (0.10–0.61)**
Poor subjective health status (4.7%) 1.84 (1.26–2.68)** 0.99 (0.59–1.67) 0.91 (0.58–1.44)
Depression (severe) (9.2%) 1.13 (0.75–1.71) 1.26 (0.86–1.86) 0.80 (0.58–1.10)
Current tobacco use (4.0%) 3.35 (0.88–12.71) 2.09 (0.76–5.72) 0.42 (0.14–1.23)
Binge drinking (past month) (6.1%) 1.67 (0.66–4.27) 1.92 (1.03–3.57)* 0.52 (0.30–0.90)*
Having been in physical fight in the past 12 months (6.9%)d 1.39 (0.66–2.95) 1.25 (0.92–1.69) 0.77 (0.55–1.09)
Poor academic performance (11.2%) 0.50 (0.11–2.40) 0.34 (0.10–1.13) 2.79 (0.82–9.44)
  1. Abbreviations: AOR adjusted odds ratio, ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations, CI confidence interval
  2. aHosmer & Lemeshow Chi-square = 6.16, P = 0.630; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.11
  3. bHosmer & Lemeshow Chi-square = 42.79, P < 0.001; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.15
  4. cHosmer & Lemeshow Chi-square = 31.37, P < 0.001; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.15
  5. dData from Cambodia were excluded
  6. *** P < 0.001; ** P < 0.01; * P < 0.05