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Table 1 Participants’ Characteristics

From: Korean national athletes’ knowledge, practices, and attitudes of doping: a cross-sectional study

  N (%) Gender N (%) Age (years) Career (years) PEAS
Male Female
Adolescent athletes 205 (45.2) 116 (38.7) 89 (57.8) 16.75 ± 1.45 6.82 ± 2.61 37.66 ± 11.20
Adult athletes 249 (54.8) 184 (61.3) 65 (42.2) 24.05 ± 3.53*** 12.65 ± 3.89*** 40.22 ± 13.95*
Total athletes 454 (100) 300 (100) 154 (100) 20.76 ± 4.59 10.02 ± 4.45 39.07 ± 12.83
  1. All data were expressed as mean and standard deviation or frequencies and percentages
  2. PEAS Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale
  3. *p < 0.05 and ***p < 0.001: tested by the independent t-test between adolescent and adult athletes
  4. Statistics were shown as follows: t 411.441 = 3.888, p < 0.001 in the Age variable; t 435.450 = −18.337, p < 0.001 in the Career variable; and t 451.735 = −2.170, p = 0.03 in the PEAS variable