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Table 2 Description of RAPiDS participants by history of utilization of substance use treatment (n = 200)

From: Access to substance use treatment among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically

   Attempted to enroll (n = 109)   
  Never attempted to enroll 91 (45.5%) n (%) Successfully enrolled without barriers 70 (35.0%) n (%) Unsuccessfully attempted to enroll 39 (19.5%) n (%) χ 2 (df) p - value
Mean Age (Standard deviation) 23.7 (3.23) 24.9 (3.30) 25.8 (2.60) 6.97 (2)a 0.001
Sex     5.44 (2) 0.066
 Male 52 (57.1%) 52 (74.3%) 27 (69.2%)   
 Female 39 (42.9%) 18 (25.7%) 12 (30.8%)   
Ethnicity     (2)b 0.044
 Hispanic or Latino descent 14 (15.4%) 13 (18.6%) 1 (2.6%)   
 Non-Hispanic 77 (84.6%) 57 (81.4%) 38 (97.4%)   
Race     19.54 (2) <0.001
 White 41 (45.1%) 51 (72.9%) 31 (79.5%)   
 Non-white 50 (54.9%) 19 (27.1%) 8 (20.5%)   
Sexual orientation     (2)b 0.431
 Straight 75 (82.4%) 61 (87.1%) 36 (92.3%)   
 LGBQ and other 15 (16.5%) 9 (12.9%) 3 (7.7%)   
Education     2.46 (4) 0.652
 Less than high school 11 (12.1%) 6 (8.6%) 6 (15.4%)   
 High school/GED 32 (35.2%) 31 (44.3%) 13 (33.3%)   
 Beyond high school 48 (52.7%) 33 (47.1%) 20 (51.3%)   
Employment Status     4.34 (2) 0.114
 Full or part-time 46 (50.6%) 24 (34.3%) 18 (46.2%)   
 Unemployed 45 (49.5%) 46 (65.7%) 21 (53.9%)   
Monthly income     15.84 (4) 0.003
  < $501 39 (43.3%) 48 (70.6%) 17 (43.6%)   
 $501 - $1500 35 (38.5%) 9 (12.9%) 14 (35.9%)   
  > $1500 16 (17.6%) 11 (15.7%) 8 (20.5%)   
Geographic residence type     5.62 (4) 0.229
 Rural 9 (10.1%) 6 (9.2%) 8 (20.5%)   
 Suburban 6 (6.7%) 8 (12.3%) 5 (12.8%)   
 Urban 74 (83.1% 51 (78.5%) 26 (66.7%)   
Ever overdosed by accident     24.99 (2) <0.001
 Yes 10 (11.0%) 23 (32.9%) 20 (51.3%)   
 No 81 (89.0%) 47 (67.1%) 19 (48.7%)   
Ever used heroin     58.87 (2) <0.001
 Yes 13 (14.3%) 41 (58.6%) 31 (79.5%)   
 No 78 (85.7%) 29 (41.4%) 8 (20.5%)   
Ever used cocaine     (2)b <0.001
 Yes 37 (40.7%) 61 (87.1%) 35 (89.7%)   
 No 54 (59.3%) 9 (12.9%) 4 (10.3%)   
Ever used a needle to inject drugs     (2)b <0.001
 Yes 4 (4.4%) 28 (40.0%) 27 (69.2%)   
 No 86 (94.5%) 42 (60.0%) 12 (30.8%)   
Ever diagnosed      
 ADHD/ADD 27 (29.7%) 31 (44.3%) 20 (51.3%) 6.62 (2) 0.036
 Depression 29 (31.9%) 43 (61.4%) 23 (59.0%) 16.42 (2) <0.001
 Anxiety 37 (40.7%) 36 (51.4%) 25 (64.1%) 6.26 (2) 0.044
 Other 22 (24.2%) 21 (30.0%) 15 (38.5%) 2.76 (2) 0.252
Ever prescribed opioid     0.24 (2) 0.886
 Yes 53 (59.6%) 43 (61.4%) 25 (64.1%)   
 No 36 (40.5%) 27 (38.6%) 14 (35.9%)   
Drug-related discrimination by medical community     28.8 (2) <0.001
 Yes 11 (12.1%) 26 (37.1%) 22 (56.4%)   
 No 80 (87.9%) 44 (62.9%) 17 (43.6%)   
Insurance status     (2)b 0.260
 Yes 79 (86.8%) 59 (84.3%) 37 (94.9%)   
 No 12 (13.2%) 11 (15.7%) 2 (5.1%)   
Ever detained in juvenile detention center     11.29 (2) 0.004
 Yes 13 (14.3%) 19 (27.1%) 16 (41.0%)   
 No 78 (85.7%) 51 (72.9%) 23 (59.0%)   
Ever arrested     16.90 (2) <0.001
 Yes 51 (56.0%) 57 (81.4%) 33 (84.6%)   
 No 40 (44.0%) 13 (18.6%) 6 (15.4%)   
Ever incarcerated in jail or prison     17.68 (2) <0.001
 Yes 28 (30.8%) 42 (60.0%) 24 (61.5%)   
 No 63 (69.2%) 28 (40.0%) 15 (38.5%)   
Ever homeless     12.03 (2) 0.002
 Yes 40 (44.0%) 39 (55.7%) 30 (76.9%)   
 No 51 (56.0%) 31 (44.3%) 9 (23.1%)   
Recruitment method     13.11 (2) 0.001
 Field 24 (27.0%) 32 (45.7%) 23 (59.0%)   
 Internet 65 (73.0%) 38 (54.3%) 16 (41.0%)   
  1. Significance ascertained using a chi-square test unless otherwise noted
  2. aSignificance tested using an ANOVA
  3. bSignificance ascertained using a Fisher’s exact test
  4. Notes: Not all columns sum to 100% due to missing data and/or rounding
  5. LGBQ Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer
  6. GED General Education Development
  7. ADD/ADHD Attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder