Skip to main content

Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate GEE analyses of factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1142)

From: Factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic Unadjusted Adjusted
Odds ratio (95 % CI) p - value Odds ratio (95 % CI) p - value
Age     
(per year older) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) <0.001   
Gender     
(female vs. male) 1.42 (1.03–1.95) 0.033 1.37 (0.98–1.92) 0.062
Ethnicity     
(Caucasian vs. other) 0.82 (0.60–1.12) 0.205   
Homelessnessa     
(yes vs. no) 2.53 (1.92–3.33) <0.001 1.99 (1.47–2.69) <0.001
Daily injection cocaine usea     
(yes vs. no) 1.58 (1.04–2.41) 0.032   
Daily injection heroin usea     
(yes vs. no) 1.69 (1.24–2.31) <0.001   
Daily injection meth usea     
(yes vs. no) 1.15 (0.61–2.15) 0.669   
Daily injection prescription opioid usea     
(yes vs. no) 1.51 (1.11–2.07) 0.010   
Daily crack smokinga     
(yes vs. no) 1.30 (0.98–1.74) 0.073   
Daily alcohol usea     
(yes vs. no) 1.37 (0.90–2.11) 0.144   
Length of time injecting drugs     
(per year longer) 0.98 (0.97–0.99) <0.001 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.045
Drug or alcohol treatment ever     
(yes vs. no) 2.36 (1.51–3.68) <0.001 2.33 (1.47–3.68) <0.001
Any employment (reg, temp, self) a     
(yes vs. no) 1.02 (0.74–1.42) 0.888   
Drug dealinga     
(yes vs. no) 1.90 (1.42–2.55) <0.001 1.32 (0.96–1.83) 0.090
Sex worka     
(yes vs. no) 1.04 (0.67–1.61) 0.861   
High school degree or higher     
(yes vs. no) 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 0.379   
Overdosea     
(yes vs. no) 1.45 (0.85–2.49) 0.175   
Binge drug usea,b     
(yes vs. no) 1.76 (1.37–2.25) <0.001 1.65 (1.26–2.16) <0.001
A victim of violencea     
(yes vs. no) 2.19 (1.62–2.97) <0.001 1.77 (1.29–2.42) <0.001
HCV positive     
(yes vs. no) 0.97 (0.59–1.61) 0.916   
HIV and treatment statusa     
(HIV+ and not on ART vs HIV−) 0.93 (0.59–1.46) 0.748   
(HIV+ and on ART vs HIV_HIV−) 0.76 (0.50–1.14) 0.186   
Incarcerationa     
(yes vs. no) 1.68 (1.17–2.42) 0.005   
  1. GEE generalized estimating equations, PWID people who inject drugs, CI confidence interval
  2. aDenotes activities in the previous six months
  3. bRefers to any route of consumption (i.e., sniffing, snorting, smoking or injecting)