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Table 1 Baseline sample characteristics, stratified by reporting inability to access addiction treatment in the past six months among PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1142)

From: Factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic Inability to access addiction treatmenta Odds ratio (95 % CI) p - value
Yes n (%) 68 (6.0) No n (%) 1074 (94.0)
Age (median, IQR) 39 (32–44) 42 (35–48)   0.008
Female gender 24 (35.3) 340 (31.7) 1.18 (0.70–1.97) 0.533
Caucasian 40 (58.8) 604 (56.2) 1.11 (0.68–1.83) 0.677
Homelessnessa 45 (66.2) 392 (36.5) 3.73 (2.19–6.35) <0.001
Daily injection cocaine usea 11 (16.2) 101 (9.4) 1.85 (0.94–3.64) 0.071
Daily injection heroin usea 32 (47.1) 361 (33.6) 1.75 (1.07–2.86) 0.025
Daily injection meth usea 1 (1.5) 56 (5.2) 0.27 (0.04–1.98) 0.200
Daily injection prescription opioid usea 27 (39.7) 310 (28.9) 1.62 (0.98–2.67) 0.059
Daily crack smokinga 29 (42.7) 422 (39.3) 1.15 (0.70–1.89) 0.583
Daily alcohol usea 6 (8.8) 87 (8.1) 1.11 (0.47–2.65) 0.806
Years since first injection drug use (median, IQR) 17 (11–22) 19 (11–28)   0.084
Drug or alcohol treatment Ever 59 (86.8) 804 (74.9) 2.20 (1.08–4.50) 0.027
Employmenta 21 (30.9) 258 (24.0) 1.41 (0.83–2.41) 0.202
Drug dealinga 36 (52.9) 335 (31.2) 2.48 (1.51–4.06) <0.001
Sex worka 7 (10.3) 150 (14.0) 0.72 (0.32–1.60) 0.413
High school degree 40 (58.8) 500 (46.6) 1.64 (0.99–2.72) 0.051
Overdosea 6 (8.8) 66 (6.2) 1.48 (0.62–3.54) 0.372
Binge drug usea,b 35 (51.5) 400 (37.2) 1.77 (1.08–2.90) 0.021
A victim of violencea 26 (38.2) 230 (21.4) 2.25 (1.35–3.74) 0.002
HCV positive 58 (85.3) 941 (87.6) 0.78 (0.39–1.57) 0.490
HIV+ and not on ARTa 10 (14.7) 164 (15.3) 0.88 (0.44–1.77) 0.720
HIV+ and on ARTa 9 (13.2) 203 (18.9) 0.64 (0.31–1.32) 0.225
Incarcerationa 20 (29.4) 187 (17.4) 1.97 (1.14–3.39) 0.013
  1. Note: The p-value for variable age was obtained from Mann-Whitney test; exact mid p-values for daily injection meth use and overdose were obtained from Fisher’s exact test; and for other binary variables p-values were obtained from Chi-square test with degree of freedom = 1
  2. PWID people who inject drugs, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range
  3. aDenotes activities in the previous six months
  4. bRefers to any route of consumption (i.e., sniffing, snorting, smoking or injecting)