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Table 5 GEE analysis estimating post-treatment effect on total social assistance payments (n = 631)

From: Beyond recidivism: changes in health and social service involvement following exposure to drug treatment court

Variables Unadjusted rate ratio (95 % CI) P value Adjusted rate ratio (95 % CI) P value
 Post-treatment period (vs. pre-treatment) 1.15 (1.08, 1.22) <0.001 1.16 (1.08, 1.25) <0.001
 Age at enrolment (per year) 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) <0.001 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) <0.001
 Women 1.06 (0.94, 1.20) 0.341 1.17 (1.02, 1.35) 0.022
Ethnicity
 White 1.21 (1.00, 1.46) 0.050 1.00 (0.81, 1.23) 0.995
 Aboriginal 1.17 (0.96, 1.44) 0.125 1.14 (0.91, 1.42) 0.264
 Other Reference   Reference  
Education level
 Grade 9 or less 0.90 (0.73, 1.12) 0.342 0.89 (0.70, 1.13) 0.353
 Grade 10/11 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 0.154 0.86 (0.70, 1.06) 0.153
 Grade 12 0.86 (0.72, 1.03) 0.093 0.80 (0.65, 0.99) 0.035
 Vocational /University Reference   Reference  
 Graduated (vs. didn’t graduate) 1.20 (1.06, 1.35) 0.003 1.14 (1.00, 1.30) 0.055
Year of enrolment
 Before 2005 Reference   Reference  
 Between 2005 and 2007 1.17 (1.01, 1.35) 0.038 1.08 (0.94, 1.24) 0.301
 After 2007 1.48 (1.30, 1.68) <0.001 1.37 (1.19, 1.57) <0.001
 Multiple admissions (vs. single) 0.91 (0.79, 1.04) 0.163 1.14 (0.97, 1.35) 0.105
Mental disorder in last 5 years
 No mental disorder Reference   Reference  
 NSMD only 1.41 (1.13, 1.75) 0.002 1.24 (0.98, 1.57) 0.075
 SUD only 1.51 (1.26, 1.80) <0.001 1.42 (1.20, 1.69) <0.001
 Both NSMD & SUD 1.80 (1.54, 2.12) <0.001 1.72 (1.47, 2.01) <0.001
 # of sentences in last 2 years (per sentence) 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) <0.001 0.98 (0.96, 0.99) 0.005
  1. CI confidence interval, GEE generalized estimating equation, NSMD non-substance related mental disorders, SUD substance use disorders