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Table 4 GEE analysis estimating post-treatment effect on acute hospital admissions (n = 631)

From: Beyond recidivism: changes in health and social service involvement following exposure to drug treatment court

Variables Unadjusted rate ratio (95 % CI) P value Adjusted rate ratio (95 % CI) P value
 Post-treatment period (vs. pre-treatment) 1.01 (0.79, 1.29) 0.931 1.05 (0.82, 1.35) 0.712
 Age at enrolment (per year) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 0.704 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 0.261
 Women 2.04 (1.43, 2.90) <0.001 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) 0.002
Ethnicity
 White 0.99 (0.59, 1.65) 0.978 0.74 (0.44, 1.24) 0.251
 Aboriginal 1.55 (0.91, 2.64) 0.106 1.10 (0.64, 1.89) 0.725
 Other Reference   Reference  
Education level
 Grade 9 or less 1.99 (1.06, 3.73) 0.033 1.39 (0.72, 2.68) 0.324
 Grade 10/11 1.28 (0.71, 2.29) 0.411 0.97 (0.53, 1.77) 0.929
 Grade 12 1.27 (0.66, 2.44) 0.468 1.05 (0.55, 2.00) 0.893
Vocational /University Reference   Reference  
 Graduated (vs. didn’t graduate) 0.52 (0.32, 0.87) 0.012 0.55 (0.32, 0.93) 0.025
Year of enrolment
 Before 2005 Reference   Reference  
 Between 2005 and 2007 1.19 (0.76, 1.86) 0.452 1.40 (0.93, 2.10) 0.107
 After 2007 1.21 (0.76, 1.94) 0.424 1.41 (0.88, 2.27) 0.152
 Multiple admissions (vs. single) 1.15 (0.78, 1.69) 0.484 1.35 (0.89, 2.03) 0.155
Mental disorder in last 5 years
 No mental disorder Reference   Reference  
 NSMD only 1.21 (0.64, 2.27) 0.564 1.02 (0.55, 1.88) 0.962
 SUD only 1.79 (1.08, 2.97) 0.023 1.39 (0.84, 2.29) 0.201
 Both NSMD & SUD 2.88 (1.82, 4.56) <0.001 2.71 (1.70, 4.34) <0.001
 # of sentences in last 2 years (per sentence) 0.98 (0.92, 1.04) 0.442 0.98 (0.92, 1.05) 0.561
  1. CI, confidence interval, GEE, generalized estimating equation, MSP medical service plan, NSMD non-substance related mental disorders, SUD substance use disorder