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Table 3 GEE analysis estimating post-treatment effect on MSP use (n = 631)

From: Beyond recidivism: changes in health and social service involvement following exposure to drug treatment court

Variables Unadjusted rate ratio (95 % CI) P value Adjusted rate ratio (95 % CI) P value
 Post-treatment period (vs. pre-treatment) 1.28 (1.15, 1.42) <0.001 1.45 (1.28, 1.64) <0.001
 Age at enrolment (per year) 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) <0.001 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) <0.001
 Women 1.22 (1.01, 1.47) 0.044 1.47 (1.20, 1.81) <0.001
Ethnicity
 White 1.57 (1.19, 2.07) 0.001 1.06 (0.80, 1.41) 0.679
 Aboriginal 1.28 (0.95, 1.74) 0.108 0.98 (0.72, 1.34) 0.915
 Other Reference   Reference  
Education level
 Grade 9 or less 0.95 (0.67, 1.37) 0.797 0.86 (0.60, 1.23) 0.405
 Grade 10/11 0.94 (0.69, 1.29) 0.704 0.87 (0.64, 1.18) 0.372
 Grade 12 0.82 (0.60, 1.14) 0.243 0.70 (0.51, 0.95) 0.024
 Vocational /University Reference   Reference  
 Graduated (vs. didn’t graduate) 1.26 (1.03, 1.54) 0.028 1.23 (1.01, 1.50) 0.045
Year of enrolment
 Before 2005 Reference   Reference  
 Between 2005 and 2007 1.09 (0.87, 1.37) 0.452 1.06 (0.87, 1.30) 0.544
 After 2007 1.42 (1.12, 1.80) 0.003 1.22 (0.95, 1.58) 0.114
 Multiple admissions (vs. single) 0.83 (0.66, 1.04) 0.107 1.04 (0.83, 1.30) 0.713
Mental disorder in last 5 years
 No mental disorder Reference   Reference  
 NSMD only 2.46 (1.74, 3.48) <0.001 2.10 (1.51, 2.91) <0.001
 SUD only 3.48 (2.60, 4.66) <0.001 3.42 (2.57, 4.56) <0.001
 Both NSMD & SUD 4.98 (3.88, 6.39) <0.001 4.92 (3.83, 6.32) <0.001
 # of sentences in last 2 years (per sentence) 0.96 (0.94, 0.99) 0.001 0.98 (0.95, 1.00) 0.023