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Table 4 Results for multi-level analyses of the associations with percentages of drug consumption in Psychotropic drugs

From: Consumption of pharmaceutical drugs in exception region of separation for drug prescribing and dispensing program in South Korea

Variables Psychotropic drugs
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
β SE t df P-Value β SE t df P-Value β SE t df P-Value β SE t df P-Value
Intercept 0.86 0.02 36.54 246 <.0001 0.38 0.30 1.27 246 0.2040 0.89 0.09 10.24 241 <.0001 0.43 0.31 1.40 241 0.1635
Pharmacists and pharmacy characteristics                     
Sex of pharmacist                     
 Male       −0.07 0.04 −1.73 243 0.0842       −0.07 0.04 −1.65 243 0.0995
 Female Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Age of pharmacist (years)                     
 ≤45       0.15 0.05 2.74 722 0.0064       0.15 0.05 2.70 722 0.0070
 46–55       0.16 0.06 2.94 722 0.0034       0.16 0.06 2.88 722 0.0040
 56–65       0.14 0.06 2.46 722 0.0142       0.14 0.06 2.42 722 0.0157
 ≥66 Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Length of operation                     
 ≤12 months       0.41 0.06 6.88 454 <.0001       0.41 0.06 6.87 454 <.0001
 13-24 months       0.22 0.06 3.63 454 0.0003       0.22 0.06 3.62 454 0.0003
 ≥25 months Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Separation of drug prescribing and dispensing                     
 Exception       −0.18 0.25 −0.72 93 0.4741       −0.18 0.25 −0.71 93 0.4813
 Application Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Period of exclusion for reformed program                     
 ≤18 months       −0.03 0.30 −0.11 88 0.9134       −0.03 0.30 −0.12 88 0.9075
 ≥19 months Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Total drug purchase (10 million KRW)       0.00 0.00 16.85 16,000 <.0001       0.01 0.00 16.80 16,000 <.0001
Regional characteristics                     
Region                     
 Metropolitan            −0.05 0.05 −0.90 241 0.3677 −0.02 0.05 −0.34 241 0.7348
 Non-metropolitan Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Total number of clinics in regions with pharmacies                     
 ≤60            −0.08 0.07 −1.18 241 0.2392 −0.07 0.07 −1.10 241 0.2733
 ≥61 Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Total number of pharmacy in regions with pharmacies                     
 ≤45            0.04 0.06 0.63 241 0.5302 0.03 0.06 0.50 241 0.6175
 ≥46 Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Average of individual income in regions with pharmacies                     
 ≤38 million KRW            −0.01 0.06 −0.14 241 0.8855 −0.01 0.05 −0.16 241 0.8746
 ≥39 million KRW Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    - Ref -    -
Proportion of national basic livelihood security beneficiaries in regions with pharmacies            0.01 0.02 0.75 241 0.4500 0.00 0.02 −0.06 241 0.9499
Random parta Variance SE Z P-Value Variance SE Z P-Value Variance SE Z P-Value Variance SD Z P-Value
Variance of the intercept at the regional level 0.04 0.01 3.40 0.0003 0.03 0.01 3.24 0.0006 0.04 0.01 3.45 0.0003 0.03 0.01 3.29 0.0005
Variance of the intercept at the pharmacy level 5.76 0.06 90.23 <.0001 5.64 0.06 90.20 <.0001 5.76 0.06 90.22 <.0001 5.64 0.06 90.19 <.0001
ICC 0.0061     0.0057     0.0064     0.0061    
  1. Note. The results of multilevel linear regression analysis using mixed model to examine associations between program designation (i.e., exception region or application region) and percentages of drug consumption (antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory drugs, and psychotropic drugs, adrenal cortical hormones, and antibiotics) in hierarchical data which was consisted of pharmacy and regional levels. Significant level P < 0.05. If these values were lower than 0.05, it indicated that there were statistically significant associations between independent variable and drug consumption
  2. Model 1 empty model, Model 2 only adjusted for pharmacy-level variables, Model 3 only adjusted regional-level variables, Model 4 fully adjusted
  3. KRW Republic of Korea Won, ICC Intra-class Correlation Coefficient, the results were rounded to the second digit after the decimal point, df degrees of freedom
  4. aIf p-value were lower than 0.05, it indicated that each level variable had statistically significant association with the outcome variables. The ICC was defined that the ratio of the between cluster variance to the total variance. It was interpreted as the correlation among observations within the same cluster