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Table 2 Percentages of drug consumption categorized by pharmacist and pharmacy variables, by four drug categories

From: Consumption of pharmaceutical drugs in exception region of separation for drug prescribing and dispensing program in South Korea

Variables Antipyretic; Analgesic; Psychotropic drugs Adrenal cortical hormones Antibiotics
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Mean SD Test statistics (df) P-Value Mean SD Test statistics (df) P-Value Mean SD Test statistics (df) P-Value Mean SD Test statistics (df) P-Value
Pharmacy characteristics             
Sex of pharmacist             
 Male 9.86 9.46 Z = −11.6574 <.0001† 0.82 2.35 Z = 4.6 <.0001† 0.29 0.71 Z = −3.3 0.0021† 6.77 30.87 Z = 7.9 <.0001†
 Female 9.03 6.46    0.91 2.47    0.28 0.68    7.24 8.71   
Age of pharmacist (years)             
 ≤45 9.20 11.17 X2(3) = 382.8 <.0001a 0.95 2.63 X2(3) = 207.2 <.0001a 0.32 0.73 X2(3) = 85.1 <.0001a 8.90 32.82 X2(3) = 378.3 <.0001a
 46–55 8.72 5.99    0.98 2.35    0.26 0.55    7.00 7.96   
 56–65 9.30 5.88    0.89 2.68    0.26 0.60    6.01 9.07   
 ≥66 10.75 7.04    0.60 1.83    0.30 0.87    5.44 26.32   
Length of operation             
 ≤12 months 9.94 15.77 X2(2) = 1.4 0.3231a 0.92 2.67 X2(2) = 8.2 0.0109a 0.35 0.96 X2(2) = 18.4 <.0001a 10.45 56.56 X2(2) = 173.7 <.0001a
 13–24 months 9.64 6.25    0.86 2.02    0.33 0.78    7.99 8.58   
 ≤25 months 9.32 5.86    0.86 2.41    0.27 0.62    6.17 7.66   
Separation of drug prescribing and dispensing             
 Exception 15.21 6.31 Z = 18.5 <.0001† 0.39 1.08 Z = −15.2 <.0001† 1.09 1.55 Z = 14.0 <.0001† 6.01 8.81 Z = 2.3 0.0232†
 Application 9.34 8.11    0.88 2.42    0.27 0.66    7.03 22.91   
Period of exclusion for reformed program             
 ≤18 months 9.36 8.11 Z = 16.8 <.0001† 0.87 2.42 Z = −14.1 <.0001† 0.28 0.67 Z = 12.2 <.0001† 7.02 22.87 Z = 2.8 0.0057†
 ≥19 months 15.69 5.63    0.34 1.12    1.10 1.57    5.76 3.61   
Regional characteristics             
Region                 
 Metropolitan 9.12 6.23 Z = −10.5 <.0001† 0.86 2.60 Z = −8.1 <.0001† 0.26 0.63 Z = −11.3 <.0001† 7.00 19.34 Z = −2.0 0.0404†
 Non-metropolitan 9.77 9.61    0.88 2.20    0.32 0.76    7.02 25.61   
Total number of clinics in regions with pharmacies             
 ≤60 9.53 6.19 Z = −7.5 <.0001† 0.86 2.44 Z = −3.1 0.0020† 0.29 0.71 Z = −6.5 <.0001† 6.99 16.42 Z = −3.7 0.†
 ≥61 9.21 12.1    0.89 2.29    0.27 0.66    7.05 35.20   
Total number of pharmacies in region with pharmacies             
 ≤45 9.45 6.20 Z = −2.2 0.0296† 0.88 2.57 Z = 0.2 0.8213† 0.30 0.69 Z = −9.2 <.0001† 7.30 16.90 Z = −13.3 <.0001†
 ≥46 9.45 10.93    0.85 2.06    0.26 0.71    6.44 31.08   
Average per capita income in regions with pharmacies             
 ≤38 million KRW 9.77 9.48 Z = −9.2 <.0001† 0.87 2.22 Z = −9.6 <.0001† 0.29 0.69 Z = −4.5 <.0001† 6.55 25.65 Z = 11.3 <.0001†
 ≥39 million KRW 9.09 6.23    0.87 2.59    0.28 0.71    7.52 18.92   
Total 9.40 8.10    0.90 2.40    0.30 0.70    7.00 22.70   
  1. Note. Significant level P < 0.05. If these values were lower than 0.05, it indicated that the mean/standard deviation of drug consumption were differenced by each independent variable. KRW Republic of Korea Won, df degrees of freedom
  2. †p for Mann–Whitney U test, Mann–Whitney U tests were used to examine differences in mean/standard deviation of drug consumption by each categorical variable as these did not have normal distribution and below than 3 groups
  3. ap for Kruskal-Wallis test, Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine differences in mean/standard deviation of drug consumption by each categorical variable as these did not have normal distribution and above than 3 groups