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Table 1 Factors associated with HIV testing and receipt of test results among clients in addiction health services

From: Correlates of HIV testing and receipt of test results in addiction health services in Los Angeles County

  Full sample Tested for HIV Received HIV test results
  N = 139,516 n = 89,383 n = 76,392
  M (SD) or % M (SD) or % M Diffa p b M (SD) or % M Diffc p b
Predisposing factors        
Age 36.13 (12.51) 36.81 (11.51) 2.18 < .001 36.78 (11.46) 1.73 < .001
Days incarcerated 1.99 (6.61) 2.28 (7.07) 0.71 < .001 2.29 (7.09) 0.55 < .001
Recovery support 3.73 (8.24) 4.78 (9.13) 2.76 < .001 4.99 (9.31) 2.70 < .001
Gender        
 Female 0.35 0.39   < .001 0.39   < .001
 Male 0.64 0.61    0.61   
Race        
 White 0.34 0.36   < .001 0.36   < .001
 Black 0.23 0.23   .047 0.23   < .001
 Latino 0.38 0.37   < .001 0.36   < .001
 Asian 0.05 0.05   < .001 0.05   < .001
Education        
 Less than high school 0.08 0.06   < .001 0.06   < .001
 High school 0.75 0.74   < .001 0.74   < .001
 College or higher 0.17 0.20   < .001 0.20   < .001
Homeless 0.24 0.29   < .001 0.28   < .001
Referral        
 Self 0.39 0.39   .072 0.39   .001
 Community 0.13 0.11   < .001 0.11   < .001
 Proposition 36 0.21 0.21   < .001 0.22   < .001
 Drug court 0.08 0.08   < .001 0.09   < .001
 Social services 0.19 0.20   < .001 0.20   < .001
Enabling factors        
Days on waiting list 3.07 (9.26) 3.42 (8.95) 0.75 < .001 3.21 (8.58) 0.11 .043
Prior treatment episodes 1.66 (3.58) 1.95 (3.70) 0.84 < .001 1.97 (3.62) 0.73 < .001
Outpatient medical visits 0.15 (1.58) 0.18 (1.74) 0.07 < .001 0.17 (1.66) 0.04 < .001
Outpatient psychiatric visits 0.22 (2.00) 0.24 (2.05) 0.04 < .001 0.24 (2.03) 0.02 .092
Treatment type        
 Outpatient 0.49 0.42   < .001 0.43   < .001
 Methadone 0.04 0.02   < .001 0.03   < .001
 Residential 0.46 0.55   < .001 0.54   < .001
Employed at admission 0.12 0.12   .212 0.12   < .001
Medication        
 None 0.81 0.79   < .001 0.80   < .001
 Methadone/LAAM 0.06 0.05   < .001 0.06   .429
 Buprenorphine 0.64 0.01   .927 0.01   .179
 Other 0.11 0.15   < .001 0.13   < .001
Need factors        
Days of primary drug use 11.19 (12.49) 11.65 (12.65) 1.18 < .001 11.30 (12.52) 0.41 < .001
Days of injection drug use 3.35 (9.11) 3.65 (9.37) 1.28 < .001 3.39 (9.05) 0.48 < .001
Primary drug        
 Heroin 0.17 0.19   < .001 0.18   < .001
 Alcohol 0.22 0.21   < .001 0.21   < .001
 Methamphetamine 0.25 0.27   < .001 0.28   < .001
 Cocaine or crack 0.16 0.17   < .001 0.18   < .001
 Marijuana or hashish 0.14 0.10   < .001 0.10   < .001
 Other 0.05 0.06   < .001 0.06   < .001
Method of drug use        
 Oral 0.27 0.26   < .001 0.26   < .001
 Smoking 0.51 0.50   < .001 0.51   < .001
 Inhalation 0.06 0.06   < .001 0.06   < .001
 Injection 0.16 0.18   < .001 0.17   < .001
 Other 0.07 0.01   .058 0.01   .781
HCV diagnosis        
 Yes 0.06 0.09   < .001 0.08   < .001
 No 0.94 0.91    0.92   
STD diagnosis        
 Yes 0.04 0.06   < .001 0.06   < .001
 No 0.96 0.94    0.94   
History of mental illness        
 Yes 0.24 0.27   < .001 0.28   < .001
 No 0.76 0.73    0.72   
  1. HCV hepatitis C virus, LAAM levo-α-acetylmethadol, STD sexually transmitted disease
  2. aMean difference between clients tested for HIV and clients not tested for HIV
  3. bChi-square test for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables
  4. cMean difference between clients who received HIV test results and clients who did not receive HIV test results