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Table 1 Summary of Two-Eyed Seeing contribution at each stage in the scoping study

From: A scoping study of cultural interventions to treat addictions in Indigenous populations: methods, strategies and insights from a Two-Eyed Seeing approach

Scoping study stages Key milestones reached Two-Eyed seeing contribution
Base Stage: Creating a shared space for teamwork. •Grounded selves in culture through active participation in ceremony. •Exposed to different ways of knowing (Indigenous and Western) through immersion in cultural experiences and an understanding of team science.
•Developed research principles for working together.
•Ensured the scoping team was balanced with a combination of Western and Indigenous thinkers, comfortable with the concept of spiritual wellness and able to create a shared space to converse and exchange knowledge.
•Formed an interdisciplinary, inter-professional and intercultural scoping study of 11 team members.
Stage #1: Identifying the research question. •Research question established with an Indigenous lens: “What cultural interventions have been used to treat addictions in Indigenous populations and how effective are they?” •Research question formulated through integrating Indigenous knowledge shared at initial full team meeting, with Western understanding of quality of evidence.
•Guided by full team’s research principles—holistic research.
•Supplementary objectives considered Western concepts of quality.
Stage #2: Identifying relevant studies found in published articles, papers and reports. •Applied an Indigenously-led perspective and Western-based vehicle to systematically search and screen the literature.
Stage #3: Study selection. •Three rounds of relevancy testing. •Influenced the switch from systematic review to scoping study to ensure openness to Indigenous context-dependent research as well as Western methods-controlled studies.
•3,908 scientific articles and 610 grey literature reviewed.
•Final selection: 19 studies.
Stage #4: Charting the data. •Extraction form developed, piloted and applied. •Used Western and Indigenous criteria to label and extract data.
Stage #5: Collating, summarizing and reporting. •Narrative summaries and tables produced of descriptive and thematic information. •Blended Western data and Indigenous knowledge.
Stage #6: Consultation with stakeholders. •Meeting with Ad Hoc Review Group to further interpret and synthesize information. •Synthesized Indigenous and Western knowledge from multiple lines of evidence to inform instrument development.