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Table 1 Bivariate associations with not receiving ART among HIV-positive PWID in Bangkok, Thailand ( n= 128)

From: Compulsory drug detention exposure is associated with not receiving antiretroviral treatment among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Currently on ART Odds ratio (95%CI) p - value
No 58 (45.3%) Yes 70 (54.7%)
Demographic    
Older age     
  ≥38 years old 30 (51.7%) 35 (50.0%) 1.07 (0.53 – 2.15) 0.846
  <38 years old 28 (48.3%) 35 (50.0%)   
Gender     
  Female 12 (20.7%) 13 (18.6%) 1.14 (0.48 – 2.75) 0.764
  Male 46 (79.3%) 57 (81.4%)   
Education attainment     
  < Secondary education 34 (58.6%) 20 (28.6%) 3.54 (1.70 – 7.39) <0.001
  ≥ Secondary education 24 (41.4%) 50 (71.4%)   
Substance use behaviour     
Heroin injection*     
  Daily 9 (15.5%) 8 (11.4%) 1.42 (0.51 – 3.96) 0.497
  < Daily 49 (84.5%) 62 (88.6%)   
Methamphetamine injection*     
  Daily 7 (12.1%) 3 ( 4.3%) 3.07 (0.65 – 19.10) 0.184
  < Daily 51 (87.9%) 67 (95.7%)   
Midazolam injection*  
  Daily 38 (65.5%) 24 (34.3%) 3.64 (1.75 – 7.58) <0.001
  < Daily 20 (34.5%) 46 (65.7%)   
Alcohol consumption*     
  Daily 3 ( 5.3%) 3 ( 4.3%) 1.24 (0.16 – 9.63) >0.999
  < Daily 54 (94.7%) 67 (95.7%)   
Experiences with drug law enforcement  
Ever beaten by police     
  Yes 33 (56.9%) 28 (40.0%) 1.98 (0.98 – 4.01) 0.057
  No 25 (43.1%) 42 (60.0%)   
Ever incarcerated     
  Yes 56 (96.6%) 63 (90.0%) 3.11 (0.56 – 31.65) 0.182
  No 2 ( 3.4%) 7 (10.0%)   
Ever in compulsory drug detention    
  Yes 13 (22.4%) 6 ( 8.6%) 3.08 (1.09 – 8.72) 0.028
  No 45 (77.6%) 64 (91.4%)   
Healthcare access
Ever accessed methadone treatment   
  Yes 51 (87.9%) 62 (88.6%) 0.94 (0.32 – 2.77) 0.911
  No 7 (12.1%) 8 (11.4%)   
Ever received healthcare information or support services at the MSHRC  
  Yes 3 ( 5.2%) 14 (20.0%) 0.22 (0.06 – 0.80) 0.014
  No 55 (94.8%) 56 (80.0%)   
Reporting barriers to healthcare*   
  Any 33 (56.9%) 48 (68.6%) 0.61 (0.29 – 1.25) 0.173
  None 25 (43.1%) 22 (31.4%)   
  1. PWID: people who inject drugs; ART: antiretroviral treatment; CI: confidence interval; MSHRC: Mitsampan Harm Reduction Center.
  2. *denotes activities in the previous 6 months.
  3. Fisher’s exact test was used.