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Table 2 Non-AAS substances used before AAS use debut, reason(s)/motive(s) for use, and studies

From: Polypharmacy among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: a descriptive metasynthesis

Substance Reason(s) for use Studies (First author, reference)
Alcohol Better sleep and relaxation Fudala [17]; Gruber [21]; Hoff [24]; Kanayama [26]; Katz [29]; Kusserow [34]; Perry [47]; Skårberg [53]
Amphetamine Boosting training, alertness, psychological wellbeing Hoff [24]; Skårberg [53]
Analgesics/opioids Pain relief Kanayama [26]
Cannabis NS Fudala [17]; Hoff [24]; Kanayama [26]; Kusserow [34]; Perry [47]
Cocaine NS Fudala [17]; Gruber [21]; Kanayama [26]; Katz [29]; Perry [47]
Creatine Boosting training Skårberg [53]
Dietary/nutritional supplements Boosting training, energy Skårberg [53]
Heroin NS Cornford [13]
Protein powder Boosting training Skårberg [53]
Stimulants NS Kusserow [34]
Other IPEDs, licit and illicit substances NS Gruber [21]; Hoff [24]; Kanayama [27,28]; Perry [47]
  1. IPEDs: Image and performance-enhancing drugs.
  2. NS: Not specified.
  3. Substance class - not specified