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Table 1 Public and private treatment clients’ demographics, substance use characteristics, HIV risk behaviors and testing availability

From: Nonmedical prescription drug users in private vs. public substance abuse treatment: a cross sectional comparison of demographic and HIV risk behavior profiles

  Private (n = 249) Public (n = 246) Wald OR (95% CI) p-value
n(%) n(%)
Demographics      
  Age (under 30 yrs) 162 (65.1) 109 (44.3) 21.18 0.43 (0.30, 0.61) <0.01
  Female gender 97 (38.9) 104 (42.3) 0.57 1.15 (0.80,1.64) 0.45
  Has medical insurancea 175 (70.6) 76 (31.3) 71.60 0.19 (0.13, 0.28) <0.01
  Graduated high school 165 (66.3) 114 (46.3) 19.68 0.44 (0.31, 0.63) <0.01
  Income $1000 or less in the last montha 73 (30.5) 126 (53.8) 25.79 2.65 (1.82, 3.87) <0.01
  Lifetime arrests, mean (sd) 4.01 (7.35) 9.00 (11.29) 27.83 1.09(1.05, 1.12) <0.01
Race/Ethnicity      <0.01
  Non-hispanic white 207 (83.1) 90 (36.6) 99.68 0.12 (0.08, 0.18) <0.01
  Non-hispanic black/ African-American 10 (4.0) 42 (17.1) 19.11 4.92 (2.41, 10.05) <0.01
  Hispanic/Latino 18 (7.2) 101 (41.1) 62.57 8.94 (5.19, 15.38) <0.01
  Other ethnicity 14 (5.6) 13 (5.3) 0.03 0.94 (0.43, 2.04) 0.87
Primary drug class      
  Opioids 199 (79.9) 131 (53.3) 37.85 0.29 (0.19, 0.43) <0.01
  Benzodiazepines 50 (20.1) 115 (46.7) 37.85 3.49 (2.35, 5.21) <0.01
Other substances used      
  Crack cocaine 84 (33.7) 127 (51.6) 16.00 2.10 (1.46, 3.01) <0.01
  Powder cocaine 135 (54.2) 153 (62.2) 3.23 1.39 (0.97, 1.99) 0.07
  Heroin 82 (32.9) 41 (16.7) 17.00 0.41 (0.27, 0.62) <0.01
Routes of administration (90 days before treatment)      
  Injected pillsb 88 (35.3) 42 (18.8) 15.65 0.43 (0.28, 0.65) <0.01
  Smoked pillsb 73 (29.3) 42 (18.8) 6.93 0.56 (0.36, 0.86) 0.01
  Snorted pillsb 175 (70.3) 112 (50.2) 19.52 0.43 (0.29, 0.62) <0.01
Needle risk (past year)      
  Injected a drug 107 (42.9) 56 (22.8) 22.30 0.39 (0.27, 0.58) <0.01
  Reused someone’s needlec 36 (33.6) 26 (46.4) 2.53 1.71 (0.88, 3.31) 0.11
  Using someone else’s rinse water, cooker or cottona,c 33 (30.8) 24 (43.6) 2.58 1.74 (0.89, 3.40) 0.11
HIV sexual risk behaviors (year before treatment)      
  Sex with an injection drug usera,d 55 (23.1) 36 (15.9) 3.84 0.63 (0.39, 1.00) 0.05
  Traded or sold sexd 32 (13.4) 63 (27.4) 13.74 2.38 (1.46, 3.81) <0.01
  Two or more recent sexual partnersd 143 (59.8) 148 (64.3) 1.01 1.21 (0.83, 1.76) 0.31
  Had sex without a condom or barriera,d 214 (90.3) 186 (80.9) 8.16 0.45 (0.26, 0.78) <0.01
  HIV testing is available to you in this programa 117 (79.1) 199 (95.7) 19.92 5.86 (2.69, 12.74) <0.01
  Has been offered HIV testing since arrivala,g 64 (55.7) 148 (75.1) 12.36 2.41 (1.48, 3.93) <0.01
  Participated in HIV testing at this programa,g 27 (24.3) 117 (60.6) 34.73 4.79 (2.85, 8.06) <0.01
  1. Note. Private treatment is the reference group. Df =1 for all. aParticipants were excluded that did not answer or answered “do not know”. bEarly initiates into the study were not included (n = 23). cParticipants who had not injected a drug within the last twelve months were not included. dParticipants who had not had sex within the last twelve months were not included (n = 26). gOnly participants who answered “yes” to the question, “is HIV testing available to you in this program” were included.