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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics a

From: Association between methadone dose and concomitant cocaine use in methadone maintenance treatment: a register-based study

Variables Low dose group (LDG) (n = 200) Medium dose group (MDG) (n = 273) High dose group (HDG) (n = 140) Total sample (N = 613) p value
Gender, n (%) male 132 (66.0) 188 (68.9) 96 (68.6) 416 (67.9) p > 0.05
Age, mean (SD), y 39.4 (±6.9) 38.4 (±6.4) 38.9 (±6.4) 38.9 (±6.6) p > 0.05
Nationality, n (%) Swiss 169 (86.2) 230 (86.5) 118 (84.9) 517 (86.0) p > 0.05
Marital status, n (%) Married 24 (12.0) 28 (10.3) 12 (8.6) 64 (10.4) p > 0.05
Education, mean (SD), y 10.9 (±1.5) 10.9 (±1.6) 10.6 (±1.6) 10.8 (±1.6) p > 0.05
Employed, n (%)b 54 (29.0) 49 (18.8) 17 (12.6) 120 (20.6) p < 0.001
Age at first heroin use, mean (SD), yc 20.8 (±5.3) 19.2 (±4.3) 18.1 (±4.1) 19.5 (±4.7) p < 0.01
Age at first cocaine use, mean (SD), yd 22.3 (±6.9) 21.3 (±5.7) 19.7 (±4.3) 21.3 (±5.9) p > 0.05
  1. aThe groups did not differ in any variable at the p < 0.05 level, except as noted.
  2. bSignificant difference between patients in the LDG, MDG and HDG (Kruskal-Wallis-Test; χ2 = 15.587; df = 2; p < 0.001). The Mann Whitney test revealed that patients in the LDG were significantly more often employed than patients in the MDG (Z = − 2.878; p < 0.01) or in the HDG (Z = −3.603; p < 0.001).
  3. cSignificant difference between patients in the LDG, MDG and HDG for age at first heroin use (ANOVA; F(2,277) = 6.206; p < 0.01). Post-hoc tests (Duncan Scheffé’s) revealed that patients in the LDG started heroin use significantly later in their lives than patients in the MDG (p < 0.05) or in the HDG (p < 0.01).
  4. dNo difference between the LDG, MDG and HDG for age at first cocaine use, but a trend for patients in the HDG to start cocaine use earlier in their lives (trend, p = 0.054).