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Table 4 Comparison between substance users and non-users on self-esteem subscales

From: Multi-dimensional self-esteem and substance use among Chinese adolescents

SE subscale Gender Cigarette user Non-cigarette user p-value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Peers Male 23.08 4.18 23.48 3.95 0.566
Female 24.00 2.85 24.23 2.96
School Male 18.52 3.85 18.52 3.59 0.168
Female 17.00 3.49 18.28 3.13
Family Male 22.22 4.10 22.46 3.53 0.886
Female 23.45 3.53 23.32 3.34
Body image Male 10.98 2.07 10.83 2.04 0.752
Female 10.35 1.95 10.66 1.77
Sports Male 17.77 3.39 17.55 3.40 0.740
Female 16.65 3.01 17.22 3.07
Global Male 22.34 3.05 22.48 3.18 0.884
Female 22.75 2.17 22.51 2.71
SE subscale Gender Alcohol user Non-alcohol user p-value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Peers Male 23.57 4.04 23.42 3.94 0.833
Female 23.89 2.41 24.28 3.04
School Male 18.73 3.70 18.46 3.59 0.356
Female 17.40 3.05 18.36 3.17 0.042*
Family Male 22.38 3.56 22.47 3.58 0.610
Female 23.21 3.34 23.36 3.35
Body image Male 10.92 1.97 10.82 2.06 0.496
Female 10.11 1.76 10.74 1.77 0.022*
Sports Male 17.87 3.27 17.47 3.43 0.900
Female 16.74 2.65 17.27 3.14
Global Male 22.61 3.18 22.43 3.17 0.671
Female 22.21 2.32 22.59 2.74
SE subscale Gender Drug user Non-drug user p-value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Peers Male 20.86 6.09 23.49 3.91 0.024*
Female 26.50 0.71 24.20 2.95 0.195
School Male 18.79 5.25 18.52 3.58 0.942
Female 18.00 7.07 18.20 3.15
Family Male 22.50 4.60 22.45 3.56 0.804
Female 22.50 4.95 23.34 3.35
Body image Male 10.50 3.39 10.85 2.02 0.522
Female 10.00 5.66 10.65 1.75
Sports Male 16.79 4.26 17.58 3.38 0.704
Female 18.50 3.54 17.18 3.07
Global Male 22.07 4.92 22.48 3.14 0.906
Female 22.50 4.95 22.53 2.67
  1. Statistical test: ANCOVA; Controlled variables: gender, education, and religion; df: Intercept = 1, Religion = 1, Education = 1, Gender = 1, Substance use = 1, Substance use x Gender = 1, Error = 1215; Total = 1221; *p <0.05.