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Table 1 Bivariate analyses of factors associated with groin injection among PWID in Bangkok, Thailand (n = 437)

From: Groin injecting among a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Thailand

  Groin injection in the last six months n (%)    
Characteristic Yes 150 (34.3%) No 287 (65.7%) Odds ratio (95% CI) p
Median age     
  ≥ 38 years 80 (53.3) 151 (52.6) 1.03 (0.69 – 1.53) 0.89
  < 38 years 70 (46.7) 136 (47.4)   
Gender     
  Male 119 (79.3) 232 (80.8) 0.91 (0.56 – 1.49) 0.71
  Female 31 (20.7) 55 (19.2)   
Education level     
  ≥ Secondary education 105 (70.0) 161 (56.1) 1.83 (1.20 – 2.78) <0.01
  < Secondary education 45 (30.0) 126 (43.9)   
Heroin injection*     
  > Weekly 41 (27.3) 54 (18.8) 1.83 (1.09 – 3.08) 0.02
  ≤ Weekly 58 (38.7) 110 (38.3) 1.27 (0.81 – 2.01) 0.30
  nNone 51 (34.0) 123 (42.9) 1.00 (reference)  
Midazolam injection*     
  > Weekly 127 (84.7) 113 (39.4) 10.93 (5.59 – 21.37) <0.01
  ≤ Weekly 12 (8.0) 67 (23.3) 1.74 (0.73 – 4.17) 0.02
  None 11 (7.3) 107 (37.3) 1.00 (reference)  
Methamphetamine injection*    
  > Weekly 29 (19.3) 59 (20.6) 0.79 (0.47 – 1.33) 0.38
  ≤ Weekly 30 (20.0) 81 (28.2) 0.60 (0.37 – 0.98) 0.04
  None 91 (60.7) 147 (51.2) 1.00 (reference)  
Length of injecting career     
  Median value (years) 19 18 1.02 (1.00 – 1.04) 0.08
  IQR (years) 15 – 27 14 – 24   
Binge drug use*     
  Yes 59 (39.3) 73 (25.4) 1.90 (1.25 – 2.90) <0.01
  No 91 (60.7) 214 (74.6)   
Syringe sharing*     
  Yes 33 (22.0) 43 (15.0) 1.60 (0.97 – 2.65) 0.07
  No 117 (78.0) 244 (85.0)   
Inject in public places*     
  Yes 45 (30.0) 74 (25.8) 1.23 (0.80 – 1.91) 0.35
  No 105 (70.0) 213 (74.2)   
Non-fatal overdose*     
  Yes 6 (4.0) 10 (3.5) 1.15 (0.41 – 3.24) 0.79
  No 144 (96.0) 277 (96.5)   
Need help injecting*     
  Yes 25 (16.7) 57 (19.9) 0.81 (0.48 – 1.35) 0.42
  No 125 (83.3) 230 (80.1)   
Injected with others*     
  > 75% of the time 57 (38.0) 113 (39.4) 0.94 (0.63 – 1.42) 0.78
  ≤ 75% of the time 93 (62.0) 174 (60.6)   
Barriers to accessing health services    
  Any 118 (78.7) 204 (71.1) 1.50 (0.94 – 2.39) 0.09
  None 32 (21.3) 83 (28.9)   
Drug planting by police     
  Yes 84 (56.0) 107 (37.3) 2.14 (1.43 – 3.20) <0.01
  No 66 (44.0) 180 (62.7)   
  1. PWID: people who inject drugs, CI: confidence interval; IQR: interquartile range.
  2. *Activities in the previous six months.