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Table 2 Study samples, designs, and methods

From: Cultural interventions to treat addictions in Indigenous populations: findings from a scoping study

Study Samples Designs Methods
Scientific Literature
Anderson, 1992 [40] 63 clients: 39 clients were 1-2 years out of treatment; another 24 clients had gone through the program less than a year before. Qualitative: Ethnographic study whereby the author and another researcher resided in the community for two months. They observed and participated in the 6 week program. Mixed methods—Interviews with clients post-treatment (open-ended, face-to-face, frequently with multiple interviews of the same persons and usually in family contexts), observations of treatment, personal testimonies and materials written by staff and clients.
Boyd-Ball, 2003 [41] 57 clients (and their families): 31 males; 26 females; mean age: 16 years old. Quasi-experimental: Non-equivalent control group. Comparison of (culturally supplemented) Treatment As Usual (TAU) and TAU with culturally and historically family-enhanced intervention. Surveys—All clients (and their families) followed up and assessed monthly for 11 months from the day they left treatment. Follow-ups were also done the third and final year of the study.
Boyd-Ball et al, 2011 [42] 57 clients (and their families): 32 males; 25 females; mean age: 16 years old. Quasi-experimental: Time-series. Post-treatment substance use trajectories were correlated with self-report measure of general American Indian (AI) cultural involvement. Mixed methods—Surveys, interviews, and observation. Data were collected in three waves: baseline, monthly for 11 months post treatment, and at exit interview 12 months following treatment.
Dell & Hopkins, 2011 [43] 154 youth. Quasi-experimental: Time-series data used to provide insights into the Youth Solvent Abuse Program (YSAP) treatment program outcomes. Surveys at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month intervals.
Dell et al, 2011 [44] 15 youth (two intakes of program): 7 males; 8 females; mean age: 14-15 years old; 6 treatment staff. Qualitative: Exploratory, phenomenology study to understand the experiences of First Nations and Inuit youth participating in an Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL) program as part of their healing from solvent addiction while in a residential Treatment Centre. Mixed methods—Interviews with youth and staff held during last week of program (semi-structured, face-to-face), researcher observations, written reflections by researchers, program facilitators and staff of EAL program, and journal responses by youth during the program.
D’Silva et al, 2011 [47] 317 adults. Quasi-experimental: Time-series. A single-group design involving an evaluation of a culturally specific curriculum for tobacco dependence treatment. Mixed methods—Self-reported tobacco use assessed at baseline, exit, and follow-up included current smoking behaviours and quit attempts; seven-day point-prevalence abstinence measured at exit and follow-up; and pharmacotherapy data obtained from program records.
Edwards, 2003 [45] 12 adults: 6 males; 6 females; age range: 23-51 years old. Qualitative: Grounded theory study to understand and document the experience of substance use recovery from the perspective of the Native Americans in treatment. Interviews—single, face-to-face, conducted after completion of the 90 day residential substance use treatment program.
Gossage et al, 2003 [46] 190 males: mean age: 30 years old. The sample was divided into two groups: IPsFU and IPsNFU. The size of each group varied by stage of measurement but generally there were equal numbers in both groups. Quasi-experimental: Time-series and comparison between inmate/patients (IPs) who were followed-up (IPsFU) vs. those not followed-up (IPsNFU) to advance current knowledge about the efficacy of Sweat Lodge Ceremony. It is unclear what follow-up entailed. Surveys—Four different surveys used at distinct stages: baseline; multiple times after sweat lodge experiences; and 3 and 9 months after release.
Lowe et al 2012 [48] 179 students: Intervention #1—92 students: 59 males; 33 females; mean age: 17 years old; Intervention #2—87 students; 44 males; 43 females; mean age: 16 years old. Quasi-experimental: Non-equivalent control group. Two condition design: 1) Cherokee Talking Circle (CTC) and 2) Be A Winner/Drug Abuse Resistance Education (SE). Surveys—Three instruments used to make comparisons at pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 90 day post-intervention.
2Naquin et al, 2006 [49] 399 clients: 203 males; 196 females. Pre-experimental: One-shot case study examining resident engagement with treatment process and outcomes at a single Treatment Centre. Mixed methods—Time in treatment/retention rates compared to earlier years and national averages and Surveys—post-treatment perception of care; 6 month follow-up of level of employment and use of alcohol.
1Nebelkopf & Penagos, 2005 [50] 45 individuals: 39 males; 5 females; 1 transgender. Pre-experimental: One group pretest-posttest examining changes in clients’ quality of life as a result of services received through the Holistic Native Network. Survey—Pre-post survey at baseline and 3 months after care.
1Nebelkopf & Wright, 2011 [51] 490 adults: 142 males; 348 females. Pre-experimental: One group pretest-posttest involving adult substance users to assess whether the Holistic System of Care for Native Americans is a viable model of treatment. Survey—Pre-post survey at baseline and 6 months after care.
Saylors, 2003 [52] 742 females. Pre-experimental: One group pretest-posttest to assess lessons learned and impact of the Substance Abuse Treatment Women’s Circle on clients. Survey—Pre-post survey at baseline and 12 months follow-up.
Wright et al, 2011 [53] 490 participants: 142 male; 348 females; mean age: 36 years old. Pre-experimental: One group pretest-posttest to assess preliminary outcome findings of substance abuse outpatient and residential treatment services for urban American Indians and Alaskan Natives under the Holistic System of Care model of treatment. Survey—Pre-post survey at baseline and 6 months after care.
Grey Literature
Bresette, 2009/ 2010 [54] 27 clients: 9 males; 18 females, mean age: 16 years old. Quasi-experimental: Time-series to execute an impact evaluation of the Nimkee NupiGawagan Health Centre Inc. pilot project involving treatment for youth, families, and their communities who suffer from solvent addiction. Surveys—Pre-post survey at 3 and 6 month follow-up.
D’Hondt, no year [55] 12 clients. Quasi-experimental: Time-series to evaluate a pilot residential substance use treatment program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Mixed methods—Focus groups, and interviews and surveys at baseline, treatment completion, and follow-up.
Kunic, 2009 [56] 2,685 males. Pre-experimental: One-shot multiple case studies comparing treatment outcomes among three treatment groups: 1) the Aboriginal Offenders Substance Abuse Program (ASOP), 2) the National Substance Abuse Program—High Intensity (NSAP-H) or 3) Moderate Intensity (NSAP-M). Mixed methods—Comparison of post-release outcomes over an 18 month follow-up period among three treatment groups: Biochemical markers—urinalysis for evidence of drug use and program records—type of release and revocation.
McConnery & Dumont, 2010 [57] 15 clients: 10 males; 5 females. Quasi-experimental: Time series to study the impact of an integrated addictions treatment program at Wanaki Treatment Centre. Survey interviews—Repeated measures surveys (in person and by telephone) at baseline, end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months post treatment.
The Tsow Tun Le Lum Society, no year provided [58] 11 clients: 6 males; 5 females. Quasi-experimental: Time series to assess the integrated alcohol and drug treatment program provided at the Tso Tun Le Lum Society. Survey interviews—At admission, completion of program and 3 months post treatment.
  1. 2Focused on part of study relevant to scoping study only.