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Table 3 Results of the multivariate analysis through multinomial logistic regression for the variable “presence of depressive symptoms”, by genderª

From: Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

  Mild/Moderate depressive symptoms Major depressive symptoms
  Male (n = 1,161)   Female (n = 1,511)   Male (n = 1,161)   Female (n = 1,511)  
Variables RRR (95% CI) P-value RRR (95% CI) P-value RRR (95% CI) P-value RRR (95% CI) P-value
Age group         
< 45 years 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
≥ 45 years 1.27 (0.76, 2.11) 0.36 1.28 (0.89, 1.45) 0.18 2.67 (1.59, 4.48) 0.01 1.33 (0.97, 1.82) 0.08
Marital Status         
Married/Partner 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Single 1.52 (0.97, 2.40) 0.07 1.15 (0.82, 1.61) 0.42 1.30 (0.79, 2.14) 0.31 0.95 (0.69, 1.30) 0.74
Divorced/Separated/Widowed 1.84 (0.89, 3.81) 0.10 0.87 (0.56, 1.33) 0.51 1.86 (0.93, 3.72) 0.08 1.34 (0.94, 1.89) 0.10
Family income         
≥ US $341 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
< US $340 1.42 (0.89, 2.27) 0.14 1.82 (1.27, 2.63) 0.01 1.59 (0.94, 2.69) 0.09 1.58 (1.15, 2.17) 0.01
Schooling         
> Elementary school 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
≤ Elementary school 1.67 (1.03, 2.71) 0.04 1.12 (0.80, 1.57) 0.51 1.25 (0.73, 2.14) 0.42 1.25 (0.92, 1.69) 0.16
Region         
Southeast 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
North 1.22 (0.63, 2.38) 0.55 1.30 (0.73, 2.29) 0.37 1.88 (0.87, 4.06) 0.11 0.96 (0.56, 1.65) 0.89
Mid-west 0.92 (0.42, 2.00) 0.83 1.36 (0.80, 2.31) 0.25 1.87 (0.86, 4.09) 0.12 1.11 (0.68, 1.80) 0.68
South 1.00 (0.56, 1.79) 0.10 0.75 (0.46, 1.22) 0.25 1.21 (0.61, 2.40) 0.59 0.71 (0.46, 1.08) 0.11
Northeast 0.44 (0.26, 0.74) 0.01 0.95 (0.67, 1.36) 0.80 1.21 (0.72, 2.07) 0.47 0.80 (0.58, 1.10) 0.17
Sector         
Urban 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Rural 1.22 (0.75, 2.01) 0.42 0.95 (0.64, 1.41) 0.80 0.66 (0.36, 1.20) 0.17 0.79 (0.54, 1.15) 0.21
Age at first use         
No drinking 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Up to 14 years 0.54 (0.25, 1.18) 0.12 1.06 (0.56, 2.01) 0.86 0.28 (0.11, 0.73) 0.01 0.73 (0.40, 1.34) 0.31
15 – 17 years 0.65 (0.32, 1.35) 0.25 1.03 (0.61, 1.73) 0.91 0.25 (0.10, 0.61) 0.01 0.48 (0.28, 0.82) 0.01
18 – 24 0.20 (0.09, 0.49) 0.01 0.87 (0.56, 1.37) 0.55 0.25 (0.11, 0.60) 0.01 0.64 (0.42, 0.97) 0.04
≥ 25 years 0.10 (0.01, 0.77) 0.03 0.63 (0.30, 1.32) 0.22 0.46 (0.15, 1.42) 0.18 0.59 (0.33, 1.07) 0.09
Problems related to alcohol         
none 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
≥ 1 1.45 (0.75, 2.82) 0.27 1.29 (0.70, 2.36) 0.41 2.31 (1.09, 4.91) 0.03 3.00 (1.73, 5.21) 0.01
Volume-Variability Index         
Abstainer/Infrequent drinker 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Frequent heavy drinker 0.81 (0.33, 1.97) 0.64 0.18 (0.05, 0.70) 0.01 0.44 (0.18, 1.12) 0.08 0.27 (0.10, 0.75) 0.01
Frequent drinker 0.90 (0.44, 1.86) 0.78 0.52 (0.27, 0.99) 0.04 0.88 (0.42, 1.86) 0.74 0.47 (0.25, 0.90) 0.02
Less frequent drinker 0.93 (0.43, 2.01) 0.86 0.69 (0.40, 1.17) 0.17 0.91(0.40, 2.05) 0.82 0.89 (0.54, 1.49) 0.67
Binge drinking         
No 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Yes 1.10 (0.59, 2.05) 0.29 1.18 (0.70, 1.99) 0.54 1.44 (0.74, 2.80) 0.29 0.56 (0.32, 0.96) 0.04
Abuse         
No 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Yes 1.38 (0.66, 2.90) 0.40 0.56( 0.17, 1.80) 0.33 1.89 (0.93, 3.87) 0.08 0.61 (0.23, 1.62) 0.32
Alcohol dependence         
No 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Yes 1.47 (0.67, 3.20) 0.33 4.09 (1.37, 12.17) 0.01 3.93 (1.88, 8.19) 0.01 8.58 (3.38, 21.75) 0.01
  1. ªReference category: “No depressive symptoms”.