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Table 2 Characteristics of the study sample, by depressive symptoms

From: Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

Demographics and alcohol correlates No depressive symptoms   Mild/Moderate Major Total P-value
  (%) (n) (%) (n) (%) (n) (%) (n)  
Gender          
Male 80.6 1002 9.6 144 9.8 121 19.4 265 < 0.01
Female 62 1019 16.7 269 21.3 393 38 662  
Age group          
14 – 17 69.8 462 17 108 13.3 83 30.3 191 < 0.01
18 – 24 71.6 247 15 60 13.4 57 28.4 117  
25 – 34 72.9 408 12.1 68 15 103 27.1 171  
35 – 44 77.2 357 10.5 52 12.3 66 22.8 118  
45 – 59 68.1 314 11.6 60 20.2 117 31.8 177  
≥ 60 63.7 233 16.5 65 19.8 88 36.3 153  
Marital status          
Single 71.9 803 15 176 13.1 161 28.1 337 < 0.01
Married 73 997 11.8 177 15.2 240 27 417  
Divorced/Separeted/Widowed 58.7 221 15.5 60 25.8 113 41.3 173  
Schooling          
Illiterate/basic 64.3 604 14.3 152 21.4 228 35.7 380 < 0.01
Incomplete or complete elementary school 70.4 597 14.7 129 14.9 132 29.6 261  
Incomplete or complete high school 75.2 687 12.6 119 12.2 134 24.8 253  
Incomplete or complete higher education 84.9 133 7.3 13 7.8 20 15.1 33  
Family income          
≤ US $208 63.5 753 16.2 199 20.3 252 36.5 451 < 0.01
US $209 – US $347 68 384 15.2 86 16.8 102 32 188  
US $348 – US $555 76.6 355 11.5 55 11.9 67 23.4 122  
US $556 – US $1,157 79.7 231 8.5 24 11.8 44 20.3 68  
> US $1,157 84.1 97 8.7 14 7.2 9 15.9 23  
Not informed 77.6 201 10.2 35 12.2 40 22.4 75  
Region          
North 59 120 23.1 36 17.9 41 41 77 < 0.04
Mid-west 67.4 146 14.8 38 17.8 47 32.6 85  
Northeast 73 611 11.2 111 15.8 147 27 258  
Southeast 71.9 858 13 176 15.1 217 28.1 393  
South 73.8 286 11.7 52 14.5 62 26.2 114  
Sector          
Urban 71.7 1701 12.9 337 15.4 441 28.3 778 0.39
Rural 67.9 320 15.3 76 16.8 73 32.1 149  
Age at first use          
No drinking 63.3 854 16.6 230 20.1 298 36.7 528 < 0.01
Up to 14 years 69.5 223 11.4 43 19.1 51 30.5 94  
15 - 17 years 77.4 379 12.8 70 9.8 56 22.6 126  
18-24 years 79.8 424 9.6 54 10.6 72 20.2 126  
≥ 25 years 75.2 107 9 12 15.8 28 24.8 40  
Problems related to alcohol consumption          
None 70.6 1605 14 339 15.3 392 29.3 731 < 0.01
One 80.1 112 8.5 17 11.4 25 19.9 42  
Two 79.9 84 10.3 10 9.9 9 20.2 19  
Three 80.4 57 12.2 11 7.4 8 19.6 19  
≥ Four 64 163 11.9 36 24.1 80 36 116  
Volume-Variability Index          
Frequent heavy drinker 82.3 148 7.3 18 10.3 26 17.6 192 < 0.01
Frequent drinker 79.6 283 9.9 37 10.6 43 20.5 363  
Less frequent drinker 75.5 289 10.8 45 13.7 57 24.5 391  
Infrequent drinker 74.6 299 12.9 55 12.5 59 25.4 413  
Abstainer 64.5 1002 16 258 19.4 329 35.4 1589  
Binge drinking          
Abstainer 64.6 1002 16.1 258 19.3 328 35.4 586 < 0.01
No 78.8 508 10.2 68 11 83 21.2 151  
Yes 76.1 511 10.9 87 13 103 23.9 190  
Abuse          
No/Abstainer 71.7 1890 13.2 384 15.1 462 28.3 846 0.08
Yes 64.2 131 13.7 29 22.1 52 35.8 81  
Dependence          
No/Abstainer 72.6 1916 12.9 382 14.5 445 27.4 827 < 0.01
Yes 54 105 17.2 31 28.8 69 46 100