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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample, by gender

From: Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

Demographics and alcohol correlates Male   Female   Total   P-value
  (%) (n) (%) (n) (%) (n)  
Age group        
14 – 17 10.9 335 9.8 326 10.3 661 0.65
18 – 24 17.9 159 16.9 209 17.4 368  
25 – 34 21.5 238 20.8 350 21.1 588  
35 – 44 19.3 192 19.2 296 19.2 488  
45 – 59 18.8 200 19.6 301 19.2 501  
≥ 60 11.6 161 13.8 240 12.7 401  
Marital status        
Single 36.4 560 31 596 33.6 1156 < 0.01
Married/Partner 58.2 631 52.6 814 55.3 1445  
Divorced/Separeted/Widowed 5.4 94 16.4 312 11.1 406  
Schooling        
Illiterate/Basic 34.5 430 34.4 587 34.4 1017 0.62
Incomplete or complete elementary school 29.3 402 26.9 470 28 872  
Incomplete or complete high school 27 391 29.1 559 28.1 950  
Incomplete or complete higher education 9.2 62 9.4 106 9.4 168  
Family income        
≤ US $208 34.5 495 39.2 740 36.9 1235 < 0.01
US $209 – US $347 18.2 259 19.2 325 18.7 584  
US $348 – US $555 20.9 226 16.6 257 18.7 483  
US $556 – US $1,157 14.1 143 11.2 160 12.6 303  
> US $1,157 6.1 55 4.8 65 5.4 120  
Not informed 6.2 107 9 175 7.7 282  
Region        
North 9.3 94 8 114 8.6 208 0.83
Mid-west 6.3 96 7.1 140 6.7 236  
Northeast 28.7 378 29.1 506 28.9 884  
Southeast 43.9 545 44.8 730 44.4 1275  
South 11.8 172 11.0 232 11.4 404  
Sector        
Urban 85.3 1074 84.1 1451 84.7 2525 0.38
Rural 14.7 211 15.9 271 15.3 482  
Age at first use        
No drinking 32 478 54.7 939 43.7 1417 < 0.01
Up to 14 years 13 194 5.3 127 9.1 321  
15 - 17 years 27.7 298 12.8 221 20 519  
18-24 years 23.3 246 21.1 308 22.2 554  
≥ 25 years 4 51 6.1 96 5.1 147  
Problems related to alcohol consumption        
0 62.6 871 88.8 1516 76.2 2387 < 0.01
1 7.4 85 4.6 71 5.9 156  
2 5.7 64 2 40 3.8 104  
3 5.1 54 1.1 23 3 77  
≥ 4 19.2 211 3.6 72 11.1 283  
Volume-Variability Index        
Frequent heavy drinker 13.5 146 2.9 55 8 201 < 0.01
Frequent drinker 20.5 229 8.3 140 14.2 369  
Less frequent drinker 15.2 176 12.9 217 14 393  
Infrequent drinker 12.5 166 15.4 250 14 416  
Abstainer 38.3 568 60.4 1060 49.7 1628  
Binge drinking        
Abstainer 49.7 567 60.4 1060 49.7 1627 < 0.01
No 24.2 294 22.9 373 23.5 667  
Yes 37.6 424 16.7 289 26.8 713  
Abuse        
No 85.3 1119 97.7 1671 91.7 2790 < 0.01
Yes 14.7 166 2.3 51 8.3 217  
Dependence        
No 87.1 1139 97 1660 92.2 2799 < 0.01
Yes 12.9 146 3 62 7.8 208