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Table 3 Factors associated with students’ perceptions regarding HP’s role in tobacco control (n = 3445)

From: Health professional students’ perceptions regarding their role in tobacco control: findings from the Global Health Professional Students Survey, Pakistan, 2011

Characteristics Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  ORa(95% CI) p-value ORb(95% CI) p-value
Sex     
 Female 1   1  
 Male 1.38 (1.10 - 1.74) 0.005 1.25 (1.02 - 1.53) 0.028
Age in years (categorical)     
 19-24 1    
 25-29 1.15 (0.44 - 2.95) 0.771 0.99 (0.41 - 2.41) 0.993
 ≥ 30 1.61 (0.52 - 4.94) 0.400 1.37 (0.47 - 3.99) 0.554
Use of any form of tobacco     
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.52 (1.12 - 2.05) 0.006 1.09 (0.83 - 1.42) 0.534
Use of any form of tobacco at institute     
 I have never used 1   1  
 No 1.19 (0.65 - 2.18) 0.559 0.73 (0.42 - 1.25) 0.254
 Yes 1.47 (1.16 - 1.86) 0.001 1.25 (0.97 - 1.60) 0.073
Knowledge about official policy on tobacco ban     
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.96 (0.78 - 1.18) 0.723 0.91 (0.72 - 1.14) 0.421
Viewpoint about ban enforcement at institute     
 Yes 1   1  
 No 1.17 (0.93 - 1.48) 0.161 1.08 (0.79 - 1.48) 0.599
 Institute has no official policy 0.95 (0.74 - 1.21) 0.691 0.85 (0.64 - 1.13) 0.275
Knowledge about tobacco use cessation techniques     
 Good 1   1  
 Poor 1.4 1 (1.15 - 1.71) < 0.001 1.32 (1.12 - 1.55) < 0.001
Formal Training on tobacco use cessation techniques     
 Yes 1   1  
 No 1.24 (0.94 - 1.64) 0.125 1.23 (0.96 - 1.57) 0.092
Attitude towards ban on tobacco use     
Ban on tobacco sale to adolescents < 18 years     
 Yes 1   1  
 No 1.94 (1.46 - 2.58) < 0.001 1.39 (0.99 - 1.95) 0.052
Ban on tobacco advertisements     
 Yes 1   1  
 No 2.55 (1.93 - 3.36) < 0.001 1.67 (1.13 - 2.48) 0.010
Ban on tobacco use at all public places     
 Yes 1   1  
 No 2.14 (1.72 - 2.67) < 0.001 1.60 (1.26 - 2.03) < 0.001
Health Professionals     
 Dental 1   1  
 Medical 1.29 (0.67 - 2.50) 0.436 1.33 (0.72 - 2.47) 0.353
 Pharmacy 1.37 (0.67 - 2.76) 0.379 1.42 (0.75 - 2.71) 0.278
  1. ORa = unadjusted odds ratios.
  2. ORb = odds ratios adjusted for all independent variables, CI = confidence intervals.