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Table 2 Retention and illicit heroin use for voluntary compared to involuntary transition groups

From: Differential long-term outcomes for voluntary and involuntary transition from injection to oral opioid maintenance treatment

Outcome Voluntary groupa(n = 16) Involuntary groupa(n = 95) Voluntary vs Involuntary P Value
    Adj. odds ratio (95% CI)  
Retention     
12 months 16 (100%) 95 (100%) - -
24 monthsc 14 (87.5%) 53 (55.8%) 5.55 (1.11, 27.81) 0.037e
    Adj. mean difference (95% CI)  
Illicit heroin use     
12 monthsd 5.66 (1.35, 9.96) 2.68 (1.45, 3.92) 4.02 (0.31, 7.73) 0.034f
24 monthsc 2.55 (0, 8.35) 10.61 (8.18, 13.04) -5.58 (-11.62, 0.47) 0.070g
  1. (a)Numbers are: Mean (95% Confidence Interval) or N (%).
  2. (b)Models adjusted for baseline characteristics: age, gender, ethnicity, chronic medical problem, years injecting drugs, days of heroin use, days of illegal activities, European addiction severity index - family sub-scale score.
  3. (c)Adjusted odds ratio from the logistic regression model; not tested at 12 months.
  4. (d)Adjusted mean difference from the linear regression model.
  5. (e)Wald chi-square test, chi-square value = 4.33, df = 1.
  6. (f)t-test, t-value = 2.16, adjusted degrees of freedom for multiple imputation = 76.6.
  7. (g)t-test, t-value = -1.83, adjusted degrees of freedom for multiple imputation = 97.4