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Table 3 Factors associated with smoking susceptibility among current non-smokers (n = 4613)

From: Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Characteristics ORa(95% CI) p-value ORb(95% CI) p-value
Sex     
Male 1   1  
Female 0.98 (0.81-1.19) 0.886 1.53 (1.24-1.89) <0.001
Age in years (categorical)     
≤ 13 1   1  
> 13 1.14 (0.92-1.43) 0.219 1.06 (0.84-1.33) 0.597
Parents’ smoking status     
None 1   1  
At least one parent smokes 1.82 (1.52-2.19) <0.001 1.64 (1.35-1.99) <0.001
I don’t know 2.44 (1.39-4.28) <0.001 1.51 (0.82-2.76) 0.179
Friends’ smoking status     
do not have friends who smoke 1   1  
Have friends who smoke 2.84 (2.36-3.42) <0.001 2.77 (2.27-3.40) <0.001
Classes on harmful effects of smoking    
Did attend 1   1  
Did not attend 1.13 (0.95-1.36) 0.161 1.16 (0.95-1.40) 0.126
Access to antismoking media     
No 1   1  
Yes 0.82 (0.68-0.99) 0.041 0.73 (0.59-0.89) 0.002
Exposure to billboards cigarette marketing    
No 1   1  
Yes 1.19 (0.99-1.43) 0.062 0.98 (0.78-1.22) 0.863
Exposure to newspapers/magazines cigarette marketing   
No 1   1  
Yes 1.29 (1.07-1.56) 0.008 1.30 (1.03-1.65) 0.026
Boys who smoke have more or less friends    
Less friends or no difference 1   1  
More friends 0.99 (0.79-1.23) 0.946 0.78 (0.58-1.04) 0.090
Girls who smoke have more or less friends    
Less friends or no difference 1   1  
More friends 1.10 (0.87-1.41) 0.408 0.96 (0.70-1.34) 0.851
Boys who smoke are more or less attractive    
Less attractive or no difference 1   1  
More attractive 1.70 (1.34-2.16) <0.001 1.36 (0.99-1.85) 0.051
Girls who smoke are more or less attractive    
Less attractive or no difference 1   1  
More attractive 1.66 (1.26-2.17) <0.001 1.30 (0.91-1.85) 0.141
People who smoke are more or less comfortable    
Less comfortable or no difference 1   1  
More comfortable 1.69 (1.25-2.28) 0.001 1.32 (0.94-1.85) 0.101
Knowledge of harmful effects of smoking    
Poor 1   1  
Good 0.50 (0.40-0.63) <0.001 0.54 (0.43-0.69) <0.001
Knowledge of harmful effects of secondhand smoke    
Poor 1   1  
Good 0.74 (0.29-1.87) 0.535 0.62 (0.24-1.62) 0.335
  1. ORa = unadjusted odds ratio.
  2. ORb = odds ratios adjusted for gender, age, parents smoking status, friend smoking status, education of harmful effects of smoking, access to antismoking media, exposure to billboards cigarette marketing, exposure to newspaper/magazines cig marketing, expected social outcomes of smoking, knowledge of harmful effects of smoking, knowledge of harmful effects of secondhand smoke.
  3. CI = confidence intervals.