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Table 1 Independent variable descriptions

From: Factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and after release from jail: a longitudinal study

  Assessed at time 1 Assessed at time 2
  Refers to period prior to arrest Refers to current situation
Demographics   
  Age Date of birth Date of birth at Time 1 plus number of days elapsed between Time 1 and 2 interviews
  Race/ethnicity White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaska native, Bi-racial, Other; as Hispanic. Categories collapsed to make Hispanic ethnicity a mutually exclusive category if overlap with other race identity --
Housing stability   
  Foster care history Ever having been in New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services, a group home, or foster care --
  Living with parents or legal guardian Living with parents, legal guardian, or other relatives. Living with parents, legal guardian, or other relatives
  Unstably housed Living in a shelter, from place-to-place, homeless, on the streets, in an empty building, or in an institution Living in a shelter, from place-to-place, homeless, on the streets, in an empty building, or in an institution
Social ties Number of people in their lives felt close to --
No health insurance Not paying for medical care in the past year with Medicaid or other health insurance Not paying for medical care in the past year with Medicaid or other health insurance
Unemployed Being unemployed and looking/not looking for work Being unemployed and looking/not looking for work
Education   
  Ever held back in school Ever having stayed a grade back in school --
  Not attending school regularly Being enrolled in school but not attending most of the time, suspended or expelled from school, dropped out of school, or graduated from school Being enrolled in school but not attending most of the time, suspended or expelled from school, dropped out of school, or graduated from school
  Lifetime learning disability diagnosis Ever having been told by a guidance counselor, social worker, physician, or psychologist that they had a learning disability, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), or hyperactivity --
Alcohol and drug risk   
  Alcohol use Number of times a week on average alcohol consumed in past 30 days Number of times a week on average alcohol consumed in past 90 days
  Marijuana use Number of days marijuana used in past 30 days Number of days marijuana used in past 90 days
  Hard drug use Number of days cocaine, crack, heroin, inhalants, acid, ecstasy, downers, speed, PCP, or steroids used in past 30 days Number of days cocaine, crack, heroin, inhalants, acid, ecstasy, downers, speed, PCP, or steroids used in past 90 days
  Sold drugs to get money for drugs/alcohol Selling drugs to get money to pay for purchase of drugs/alcohol for personal use in past 30 days Selling drugs to get money to pay for purchase of drugs/alcohol for personal use in past 90 days
  Drug/alcohol dependence Participants asked 6 questions about drug/alcohol use in the past year, such as: “Did you need to use more drugs or alcohol to get the same high as when you first started using?” If participants answered “yes” to 6 out of 6, classified as “drug/alcohol-dependent” according to DSV IV criteria [22] Participants asked 6 questions about drug/alcohol use in the past year, such as: “Did you need to use more drugs or alcohol to get the same high as when you first started using?” If participants answered “yes” to 6 out of 6, classified as “drug/alcohol-dependent” according to DSV IV criteria [22]
Sex risk   
  Sex partners Number of sex partners in past three months Number of sex partners in past three months
  Inconsistent condom use Not “always” using condoms with all sex partners in past three months Not “always” using condoms with all sex partners in past three months
Interpersonal violence risk   
  Gang involvement Ever having been involved in a gang, for example with the “Bloods”, “Crips”, or “Latin Kings” --
  Weapons possession during illegal activity Carrying a gun, knife, or any other type of weapon while engaging in illegal activities in last year Carrying a gun, knife, or any other type of weapon while engaging in illegal activities in last year
Criminal justice background   --
  Incarcerated for drug charges Having a current charge for sale, manufacturing, use, or possession of drugs/controlled substances --
  Incarcerated for violent charges Having a current charge for armed robbery, possession of a weapon or weapons charge, offenses against family, children, reckless endangerment of children, domestic violence, sex offenses other than rape or prostitution, or simple assault --
  Prior arrests Number of times ever arrested --
  Arrests after release from jail -- Number of arrests since release from jail/enrollment in REAL MEN
  Went back to jail after index incarceration -- Whether past year’s arrests led to an incarceration