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Table 1 Baseline participants’ characteristics by study group

From: Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Pick-Klop group (n1 = 120) Psychoeducation group (n2 = 60) Waiting-list group (n3 = 60) p value
Age in years 33.7 ±13.4 (19, 66) 28.7 ±10.8 (18, 59) 30 ±10 (20, 60) 0.03
Women,% 64.2 78.3 53.3 0.02
Education,%     n.s.
- High school or lower 14.3 1.7 13.3  
- Professional school 27.7 40 30  
University degree 58.0 58.3 56.7  
Smoking history     
- Age at start of smoking 16.9 ±3 (8, 27) 15.2 ±2 (11, 20) 16 ±2.2 (12, 23) 0.03
- Years of cigarette smoking 16.9 ±13.4 (1, 49) 13.5 ±10.2 (3, 40) 14.4 ± 10.6 (2, 44) n.s.
- No. of cigarettes smoked/day 15.8 ±8.3 (3, 50) 15.5 ±7.3 (4, 40) 12.8 ±7 (1, 32) 0.04
- No. of previous attempts to quit 2.8 ±2.4 (0, 17) 3.2 ±2.4 (0, 12 2.4 ±2.4 (0, 15) n.s.
- Have previously sought help to quit,% 35 31.7 30 n.s.
Living with a smoker,% 47.5 56.7 58.3 n.s.
Stage of change,%     0.01
- Precontemplation 38.3 20 43.3  
- Contemplation 48.3 61.7 46.7  
- Preparation 13.3 18.3 10.0  
Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence 3.3 ±1.9 (0, 8) 3.4 ±2.1 (1, 8) 2.8 ±2.4 (0, 10) n.s.
Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy Scale     
- Perceived advantage 19.3 ±8.6 (0, 35) 18.8 ±8.8 (2, 32) 19.7 ±8.8 (0, 35) n.s.
- Drawback 9.9 ±4.3 (2, 20) 11.3 ±4.4 (4, 20) 10 ±4.7 (0, 20) n.s.
- “Don’t know” answers 2.2 ±2.7 (0, 11) 2.4 ±2.9 (0, 8) 2.5 ±3.2 (0, 12) n.s.
Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale     
- Adverse effects of smoking 38.6 ±6.8 (15, 50) 38.8 ±8.5 (15, 50) 39.8 ±5.3 (28, 50) n.s.
- Psychoactive benefits of smoking 13.9 ±4.1 (4, 20) 14.3 ±4.1 (6, 20) 14 ±4.3 (4, 22) n.s.
- Pleasure of smoking 14.4 ±3.8 (4, 20) 13.6 ±3.1 (5, 20) 14.7 ±3.6 (8, 20) n.s.
Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire     
- Internal score 15.6 ±5.9 (5, 30) 14 ±6.0 (6, 30) 15.9 ±6.7 (6, 30) n.s.
- External score 13.8 ±6.3 (4, 30) 11.9 ±5.3 (4, 28) 13.7 ±7.0 (6, 30) n.s.
- Total score 29.3 ± 10.8 (10, 60) 25.8 ± 9.5 (12, 55) 29.8 ± 12.5 (12, 54) n.s.
Psychiatric disorder history,%     n.s.
- Depression/mood disorder 19.2 10 23.3  
- Other disorder 8.3 10 10  
  1. Interval variables are reported by their means and standard deviations, M ± SD, and by their ranges (min, max). Categorical variables are reported by their percentages,%. n.s. = non-significant.