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Table 3 Association between perceived health and well-being and subgroups of gamblers

From: Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland

  All gamblers Non-problem gamblers Problem gamblers Pathological gamblers X2test
  N = 3451 n = 3345 n = 67 n = 39  
Perceived health/well-being % % % %  
Feeling lonely      X2 =27.509, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001
  All the time/often 17.3 16.7 38.6 30.0  
  Never/very rarely/sometimes 82.7 83.3 61.4 70.0  
Smoking      X2 =57.468, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001
  Daily smoking 19.9 18.8 48.6 47.5  
  Not at all/occasionally 80.1 81.2 51.4 52.5  
Alcohol risk consumer, AUDIT-C      
  At risk 28.3 26.9 68.8 71.4 X2 =86.394, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001
  Not at risk 71.7 73.1 31.2 28.6  
Mental health, MHI-5      
  Clinically significant problem 3.3 3.0 8.6 17.9 X2 =33.024, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001
  No problem 96.7 97.0 91.4 82.1  
General health      
  Bad/somewhat bad 2.8 2.7 4.3 7.7 X2 =17.159, df = 4, p = 0.005
  Average 13.0 12.8 27.1 10.3  
  Good/somewhat good 84.2 84.5 68.6 82.0  
  1. AUDIT-C, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, score for risk consumption ≥5 among women and ≥6 among men; MHI-5, the Mental Health Inventory, scale 1–100, clinically significant problem ≤52. Significance (p) is determined by chi-squared (X2) test; the data were weighted based on gender, age and residency; 22,2% cells have expected count less than 5.