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Table 3 Association between perceived health and well-being and subgroups of gamblers

From: Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland

 

All gamblers

Non-problem gamblers

Problem gamblers

Pathological gamblers

X2test

 

N = 3451

n = 3345

n = 67

n = 39

 

Perceived health/well-being

%

%

%

%

 

Feeling lonely

    

X2 =27.509, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001

  All the time/often

17.3

16.7

38.6

30.0

 

  Never/very rarely/sometimes

82.7

83.3

61.4

70.0

 

Smoking

    

X2 =57.468, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001

  Daily smoking

19.9

18.8

48.6

47.5

 

  Not at all/occasionally

80.1

81.2

51.4

52.5

 

Alcohol risk consumer, AUDIT-C

     

  At risk

28.3

26.9

68.8

71.4

X2 =86.394, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001

  Not at risk

71.7

73.1

31.2

28.6

 

Mental health, MHI-5

     

  Clinically significant problem

3.3

3.0

8.6

17.9

X2 =33.024, df = 2, p ≤ 0.001

  No problem

96.7

97.0

91.4

82.1

 

General health

     

  Bad/somewhat bad

2.8

2.7

4.3

7.7

X2 =17.159, df = 4, p = 0.005

  Average

13.0

12.8

27.1

10.3

 

  Good/somewhat good

84.2

84.5

68.6

82.0

 
  1. AUDIT-C, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, score for risk consumption ≥5 among women and ≥6 among men; MHI-5, the Mental Health Inventory, scale 1–100, clinically significant problem ≤52. Significance (p) is determined by chi-squared (X2) test; the data were weighted based on gender, age and residency; 22,2% cells have expected count less than 5.